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Full text of "Icones plantarum Indiae Orientalis ?or figures of Indian plants /by Robert Wight."

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Plates bearing the legend "Roxburghianae" represent redrawings of Roxburgh '« ^ 
unpubhshed p ates now at the Calcutta Botanic Garden, and tZs represent Rox 

ea. a? U832). Where two numbers appear, one above th^ nfh^^r *k1 *« ^**^' »"Ji 

represents Wight's plate sequence (^L n^Xr trbe c tedf Ve "de^Iw ^^^ 
a^^ef^renceto«,e^pec^^^ denomxnator 























Vol. YI. 





Mo. Bot. Gar^tn 

IS 34. 


While the last sheets of tliis work aie passing through the press, I avail myself of the leisure 
now at my disposal to say a few words regarding it. From its commencement in 1838 to the 
present time it lias had to contend with considerable disadvantages, and been for the most part con- 
ducted under circumstances unfavourable to the research necessary towards ensuring correct ex- 
ecution. The press, both Printing and Lithographic, had at the outset to be in a great measure 
formed for it. The former was conducted by persons very indiflferently conversant with their Art, 
from whom I could derive little or no assistance in the mechanical department, and who were so 
overloaded with newspaper business that they had little time to devote to woi^k of this kind. Lat- 
terly a great change for the better has been effected as shown by the improved style in which it is now 
turned out. As regards Lithography, it was comparatively untried and much had to be learned, but 
happily, as the work advanced, it too improved, and has now attained such perfection as leaves little 
to be desired, and, considering the disadvantages resulting from the unfavourable climate which has 
to be contended with in India, it is perhaps scarcely susceptible of material improvement. But 
whether or not I am correct in this conjecture, it is certain that the later volumes are much better 
executed than the earlier ones. The material, too, and the getting up, owing to the unequal and un- 
certain supplies of the Madi-as stationery market, were for some time deficient in uniformity. 


As regards my share of the business I have, from the outset, had to work alone and at the 
same time to conduct the duties of a public office. These >vere often extremely onerous, and not 
seldom forced me to pass portions more rapidly through my hands than I considered quite consistent 
with that accuracy of execution and detail which ought to characterize works of this kind. Add to 
these, the very heavy drawback of being, for the last 12 years, stationed upwards of 300 miles from 
the Press, and, I trust, an adequate excuse will be found for some at least of the typographical 
and other en'ors with which, I grieve to have to acknowledge, the book abounds. 


In regard to errors of nomenclature, which are wholly my own, I can only say that I have been 


anxious to ffuard asrainst them, and have spared no pains, that I could bestow. 

as the others. 

be found fewer and for the most part, 
jther was next to impossible in i 


appertain to nearly all botanical 

stances the most favourable towai'ds insuring accuracy, such as botanical 
course with Botanists, readv access to larere herbaria, unrestricted use oi 

been my good fortune to po; 



from the most celebrated Emporia of science in Europe, it would be great presumption in me even 

to hope that I could avoid them, while working alone with a limited herbarium, and an indifferently 
stocked libraiy. I have, however, made it my endeavour to compensate for these disadvantages 
by care, in turning to the best account the sources of infoi'mation within my reach, and I hope that 
blemishes of the kind referred to, may not in this work be found greatly to exceed those of other 
similar publications. 

Love of novelty and the ambition of acquiring celebnty by the publication of numerous new 
genera and species have never influenced me in the selection of my subjects ; though doubtless, when 
such crossed my path, I have gladly given them a place, not so much for the honor they conferred 
on the discoverer, as for the sake of enriching the flora of which they formed a part. Long before 
I ever dream't of becoming an author, I often felt the want of the aid towards the determination 
of an unknown plant which a figure supplies, and for which verbal description, however carefully 
drawn up, can never altogether compensate. My main object in commencing this work was to 
supply that desideratum, by the publication of figures of the plants described in my Prodromus 
of the Peninsular Flora. And while acting up to that intention the most common plants were as 
well, or even better, suited to fulfil my object as the most rare and beautiful, and, perhaps, it would 
now have been more useful to the Indian Botanist had I throughout adhered more strictly to my 
original plan. 

Be that as it may, as the work advanced, and more especially after my official duties became 
such as to compel me from want of leisure to discontinue the systematic exposition of the natural 
orders in my Blustrations, it occurred to me that the Icones would be improved by imparting to them 
something more of a systematic character; that is, to the extent of illustrating in a continuous series 
of plates, whole orders ; a feature in which the latter volumes differ from all similar works. By 
following this course, a series of more or less perfect monographs, at least of the genera, of many 
large orders have been produced. 

Through the adoption of this plan, I have, I think, been enabled to accomplish, more perfectly 
than I otherwise could have done, my wish to produce a work better adapted to the wants of Indian 
Botanists, for whom it is principally intended, than had the more usual plan been adopted. And 



ciples which would have been unnecessary, or indeed quite out of place, if addressed to highly 
accomplished European students. Fearing that the latter may sometimes be of opinion that my 


remarks on these occasions, however incidentally introduced, might as well have been witliheld a^ 
being unnecessary and common place, I think it desirable to offer this explanation in the belief that 
most of those for whom the work is more especially intended, will coincide with me as to their pro- 
priety, and in the hope that others, who have no ground for complaint on the score of extra cost, 
will not consider their introduction objectionable. 


In the early volumes I looked more to species than genera, which indeed are often the more 
difficult of the two to detennine, but subsequently I thought it advisable to increase the number of 
genera in proportion to the species, as being better adapted, when grouped in orders, to convey 
correct and enlarged ideas of the principles of the natural system of arrangement. 

This consideration, combined with the interruption of the Illustrations, led to this, if I may so 
call it, monographic plan, to carry out which I generally took up whole orders, and studied them until 
I had familiarized myself with the distinguisliing features and discriminating characters of their 
genera. Having done so, I then selected for representation those I considered the most interesting 
or best adapted to convey a knowledge of the peculiarities of the family to which they belonged, a» 


well as of the sections, under which they had been groui^ed by Botanists who had particularly 
studied and sub-divided the order. Proceeding on this plan I have been led to the construction of 
more new genera than I might perhaps have deemed prudent, had I not thus in the first instance 
made myself well acquainted with the labours of my predecessors, and I have certainly been pre- 
vented falling into many errors, by being thereby enabled to refer transition forms to already defined 
genera which I at first thought entitled to form the types of new ones. Having been thus careful, 
I trust those genera I have ventured to form, will generally be found to rest on a firm basis. 

On the subject of nomenclature I have expressed my views so fully under Gloriosa^ that little 
now remains for me to add, and even that little, would have been withheld but for a notice I acci- 
dentally stumbled upon, while turning over the pages of Dn Walpers* Annals where, in vol. 2, page 
759, I find the following note, '^Mephitidia hracteata^ Wight in McClelland's Calcutta Journal of 
Natural History, vi. 501 (cum omnibus sequentibus speciebus sub Lasiantho! !)" To this change 
of name I offer no objection, nor would I have noticed it except for the derisive addition of a 
double point of admiration. But as it now stands I do most decidedly object, not being in- 
formed on what grounds Dr. Walpers assumes the right or deems himself justified, in taking such 
liberties with my opinions. My reasons for preferring Jack's prior name are fully and fairly stated 
in the article quoted: they may be right or they may be wrong, but be that as it may, they are the 
result oi careful consideration, and, moreover, further consideration still inclines me to adhere to 
them. What may be my qualifications for arriving at a correct judgment on any such disputed 
point I know not, but I hope they will not be found inferior to those of the learned compiler of that 
very useful, I had almost said indispensable work, for such in truth it is to the Colonial Botanist. 
Had he merely difiTered in opinion, simply retaining DeCandoUe's later for Jack's earlier name, I 
should not have noticed the change. It is not to that I object; he has a right to hold his opinions, as 
much as I have, but his sneering addition I consider most improper. 


Having said so much on the general execution of this work, not attempting to conceal its many 
defects, I may now be permitted briefly to advert to another subject: the support, namely, it has 
received, as indicated by the pecuniary returns. This has not on the whole been very encouraging. 




of printing and lithography* 

;ing concern 


the completion of the first volume. Such being the case it is to be 
hoped the votaries of botanical science who have occasion to consult the woik will not fail to 
acknowledge their obligations to those munificent patrons of Natural Science, the Honorable 


never have had occasion to write this preface to the 6th volume. 




nomenclature of many species of Indian plants, has always been 
for both the labour and cost* 

The Indian Flora can now, I believe, boast of being more fu 
other country under British sway, Great Britain alone excepted. 


s, Wallich's Plantae Asiaticse Eariores, and Tentamen's Flora Nepalensis; Royle's Dlus 
own Illustrations, and this work, furnishing together representations of upwards o 

exclusive of those published in detached periodicals and Hooker's Icones, which las 


includes many Indian plants* To these may be added Blume's Rumphia (a work I have not been so 
fortunate as to have seen), and Horsfield's Java Plants. As valuable books of reference, though 
now rather out of date, we have Rheede's Hortus Malabaricus, Rumphius' Herbar. Amboynense^- 
and the Floras of the two Burmanns. But so far is the field from being exhausted that, I may say 
for myselfj had circumstances permitted, my materials are still so ample, that I could easily have 
continued this work through 1500 or 2000 additional plates, the subjects for the most part apper- 
taining to the Peninsvilar flora. It is to be hoped, therefore, that some new aspirant to botanical 
fame and honors will be induced to resume the work thus prematurely dropped, now that such 
an efficient press exists for carrying it on. 

With these brief prefatory notes I consign these volumes to the indulgent consideration of the 
public, cherishing the hope that they may not often disappoint the hopes of those who have occasion 
to consult them, and that they may prove the means of encouraging some of the many admirers of the 
beauties and perfections of all Nature's works, who had previously been discouraged by the difficul- 
ties which beset their path, so long as they had written characters only to guide them to a know- 
ledge of the principles and objects of their study and admiration, to devote a portion of their leisure 
to the cultivation of Indian Botany. 

CoiMBATORE, 20th January^ 1853. 


« « • 










Vol. I. Nos. 2, 3, (Plalcs 21—60) Sept. 1838. 

Nos. 4, 5, (61—100) Nov. 1838. 

Nos. 6, 7, 8. (101—161) June 1839. 

No. 9, (162-181) Aug. 1839. 

No. 10, (182-201) Sept. 1839. 

Nos. 11, 12, (202—241) ^ov, ]S39. 

Nos. 13, 14, (242—279) Feb. 1840. 

Nos. 15, 16, (280—318) May 1840. 

Vol. n. (319—736) 


Vol. III. Pakts T. II. III. (737—1046) 1843 to Nov. 1845. 

^ Part IV. (1047— 1162) Sept. 1846. 

Vol. IV. Part I. (1163—1282) Jan. 1848. 

Part 11. (1283—1403) Aug. I84S. 

• Part III. (1404—1501) Apr. 1849. 

Part IV. (1502—1621) May 1850. 

Vol. V. Part I. Orchidets, (1622—1762) ; May 1851. 

Part II. (1763—1920) Jan. 1852. 


Vol. VI. (1921—2101) 

Mar. 1853. 



Imations ; the successive parts, very unfortunately, not having been dated as they appeared. 


Aclisia Indica... 

« • • 

• V « 


*« • 

Agave Americana 







Ancistrocladus Heyneanus. 

— Vahlii 



hispid a 



« » • 

« « V 

• • » 

ft ■ « 

• # • 

• «« 

«• • 

• * « 

#• • 

• ft 



pauciflora ... 

protensa ... 

scapiflora ... 

secunda ... 

terminalis ... 

• — tuberosa 

; yaginata . . . 

Anictoclea Grahamiana ... 

An thericum . . . page 
— — - — tuberosum 

Antiaris saccidora 
Antidesma acuminata 
Artocarpus (J.) hirsuta 
Asparagus Asiaticus 


Asphodelus parviflorus 
Aspidopteris canarensis 

■ glomerata 

Astylis venusta 
Barnardia Indica 

Sa tis sp inosa 

Bulhine page 

C^salpinia digyna 


Callesia ... ^ page 


... 2026 

... 2027 




... 2074 


ft > • 

ftft • 

• • t 

«• • 



• ft ft 



• «4 




ft ft * 

• • • 


Callitriche Wight 
Calysaccion longifoliuni 

Celtis orientalis 

ft ft • 

page 28 

ft •• 


ft ft • 

• ft • 

Centunculus tenellus 
Ceratophyllum missionis ... 

' — muricatum 


Chaniabainia cuspidata 

Chavica Betle 

• •♦ 




• •• 






ft ft ft 

ft ft • 

Chavica sarmentosa... 



Chloranthus Indicus 


Chorisandra pinnata 

Colebrook ia 

Commelj^nacese ... page 28 
Commelyna Bengalensis 

' crlstata 

ftft ft 


* « • 

«« V 







... 2077 



ft ft ft 

ft ft ft 

Conocephalus niveus 

Nepaulensis ,♦. 

speciosus ... 

Covellia guttata 
Crinum k-tifoliuni 

toxicarium ... 

Cubeba Wallichii ... 
Cudrania Javanensis 
Curculigo brevifolia 

latifolia ... 




• •ft 

• ft ft 



ft ft ft 

aromatica ... 

Zedoaria . . . 


page 15 2015 



. 2019-20 



... 1960 






... 2042 


... 2005 



• •• 

• ft ft 

• •• 


ft ft • 

cristata .., 
fasciculata . 
— longifolia 



page 28 2081 

• •• 

■ • ft 

• ft ft 

• •• 




page 28 
Dichospcrmum jimcoides ... 2078 

lanceolatum 2075-2078 





Dianella ensifolia 

V V 9 

ft ft ft 

• ft • 


Dictyospermimi montanimi 
. ovalifolium 


Dioscorea aculeata 

ft • ft 


Disporum Ceylanicum ... 



Dithyrocarpus ... page 28 





• • ft 

Dorstenia Indica 
Dracaena terminalis 
Elatostema cuniata ... 



vata . . . 

• « ■ 

Elettaria cannaecarpa 
Epicarpurus orientaKs 


• • ft 

• • ft 

ft a ft 

Euphorbia Cattimandoo 


Ficus Bengalensis 

« ft ft 

f • ft 

• •# 

* « • 

• • i 

ft ft • 

Fleurya interrupta 
Forskolea tenacissinia 
— — __ urticoides 

Eourcroy a gigantea 
Girardinia Leschenaultiana 

Globba bnlbifera 

Carey ana 




Gloriosa superba ... 
Gnetum funiculare 


Govindooia nervosa 







... 2091 



... 1985 


... 2091 


... 1961 


... 1962 



• ft ft 

• •• 

• ft ft 

ft ft ft 

• •• 

ft ft ft 

« ft • 

• •• 

ft ft • 









page 15 





Heterocarpus glaber 

Holoptet£ea integrifolia 
Hortonia acuminata 
Hortonia floriljunda 


Hypoxia brachystachya 
— latifolia 




*. * 

*• * 

• • * 

.. • 


ft ft ft 



2008 -9 




ITypoxIs tricliocarpa 


Juncns lamprocarpus 
Ka?mpferia page 15 

— — rotunda 

Lamprocarpus ,.. page 15 

Laportea crenulata 

— — terminalis 

Ledebouria hyacintliin; 
Lepurandra saccidora 

Liliiim Neilgherrense 





• •4 

«• fl 

• • • 

« • * 

• « ■ 

• a • 


Macclellandia Griffithiana 
Marantacece ... page 15 
Maranta arundinacea 



• I • 

« • » 



Monolophus ... page 15 


Morus scandei 

• t « 

Muldera galeata 



« * • 




.... 1960 


... 1944 

1943-1944 15 


« • • 


Musa superba 
Ophiopogon Indicus ... 
Pancratium Tcrecundum ... 

Parlctaria Indica l^o. 33,34 & 1980-1 

officinalis 2091 

Zeylanica ... 45 

Peliosanthes Courtallensis 2051 

• Neilgherrensis 2052 

Peperomia Courtallensis ...1923-2 

Dindigulensis... 1921 

• Heyneana ...1922-1 

portulacoides ... 1922 

retiexa 1923-1 

• Wightiana ... 1934 

Plialangium . . . page 20 

attenuatum ... 2037 

• oligospemium ... 2038 

■parviflorum ... 2039 




• ■ • 

4« V 

• • • 

Pilea radicans 



Piper arborescens 


attenuatum .. 


Piper Nepaulense .., 

■ • ♦ 

page 1 




• « • 

« • V 

« « • 

Piper Wigbtii 
Plecospermum spinosum 
Pogonotrophe macrocarpa 
Pallia ... 28 

Potbomorphe subpeltata 




• « 

• • • 



»4 • 

• •• 

• • « 

• •• 

• « ■ 








No. 3 

...No. 41 

• « • 

aspera No. 15 

auriculata 1980-2 No. 36 
Beunettiana 1978 No. 10 
bicuspidata ... No. 33 
Borbonica ... No. 39 
caudata... ... No. 23 

No. 14 
No. 53 

1979-2 No. 29 

cor data 

4 * • 

» « « 







* « • 

• « • 

No. 21 

No. 32 

No. 7 
No. 20 
No. 9 
No. 51 

• * » 


minor ... 



« ■ • 

• » • 

Indica ... 1980-1 No. 42 
integrifolia 1979-1 No. 2 
Johnsoniana ... No, 49 

No. 12 
No. 30 
No. 40 
No. 5 

No. 26 
No. 27 
No. 4 
No. 2 5 
No. 1 
No. 55 
No. 6 
No. 4 
No. 35 
No, 54 
No. 52 
No. 52 
No. 19 
... No, 37 
1980-3 No, 34 

fl • > 

#* • 

• » • 


- pauciflora 

- pentandra 

- pilosa 

-, procumbens .. 

- prostrata 
pyramidata ., 
ramosissima ,. 
Kheedii ... 






- tctrapetra 

- tomentosa 
trialata , . . 

• • • 

• • • 

« • • 

• ■• 

• • fl 


No. 31 
No. 22 
No. 38 
No. 18 
No. 43 
No. 11 

No. 48 

No. 8 
No, 28 
No. 44 
... No, 45 

No. 17 

No. 24-28 

No. 13 

No, 46 

Primula denticulata 

Pyrularia pubera 

Roscoea alpina 



• « • 

• f • 

• « • 

• • • 





« • • 

• # • 

• • t 

Salix ichnostacliya 


Sapium baccatum 

Indicum .,, 

Sarcandra chloranthoides 
Sauropus Gardneriana 



page 27 

• • V 

» « # 

« •• 

S cilia Indica 

Scitaminese . . . 

Smilax maculata 


Splitgerbera macrostachya 
Sponia relutina 


Streptolirion volubile 
Tetrameles Grahamiana 

ft udi flora 

»• • 

• • » 

• • V 

Thoum uria 

Tinantia ... page 28 

Tradescantia cristata 

-fasciculata ... 

— imbricata 


... 1951-2 

... 1951 

... 2063 
page 15 

... 2059 
. 2047 


* « « 

Tropins aspera 

paniculata ... 


• • • 


Uhms integrifolia ... 


» • « 

• « « 

* • • 


- alienata ... 

- Borbonica 

- heterophylla 

- interrupta 

- ptdcherrima 

- scabrclla 



« « * 

• t « 

* • • 

... 2086 

... 2082 

... 2086 


-.- 1961 


... 1968 
page 9 

... 2091 
... No. 46 
No. 39 


... No. 43 
No. 44 

...No. 33-45 

w . . -" 2047 

VVagatea spicata ... 1995 

Zingiberacece ... page 15 2015 

Z'^S^^r 2015 

squarrosum . . , .,, 2004 

* V • 

• • • 

Urginia congesta 


• « « 

Urostigma Bengalense 
— religiosum 

Uvular iei£ 

• t « 








Hortonia acuminata 
_„- — floriljumla 

»« fl 


• « • 


Ancistrocladus Tlej^ieanus... 1987-88 
Vahlii ... 1 987-88 

■ • • 



Calysaccion longifolium 



Aspidopteris cmmrensis .. 
. gloiucrata 


Wagatea spicata 


Centunculus tenellus 

Primula denticulata 

Fourcroya gigantea 


Ankloclca Grahamiana 
Tetrameles Grahamiana 



Chorisandra pinnata ... 
Euphorbia Catiimandoo .. 

trigon a 

Macaranga flexuosa . . . 

— — Indlca... 

. Roxburghii 


Pachystemon trilohium 

Sapium baccatum 



Sauropus Gardiieriana 

, 1999 


. 198G 


A ■ • 


• • « 



• a • 

• •• 

• t « 

— retro versa ••• 


Antiaris saccidora 
Artucarpns hirsuta 
Conocephalus niveus ... 
Cudrania javaneusis 

Lepurandra saccidora ... 
Morun scandens ... 
Urtica ^ulclierrlma 

Celtis orienfidis 


Holoptelea integrifolia 
Sponia velutina... 


.. 1993 


. 1950 

.. 1951 

.. 1951 

«• ■ 

• • # 



• •• 

«• » 

« f ■ 

t fl ft 

• •« 






• • 

• • • 


• < • 

t « « 

Uhnus mtegrtfvUa ... 


Chamnbainia cuspidata 
Elatosteiua cuuiata 



■■ oppodt'ifoUa 


surculosa . . , 

Fleurya interrupta 

Forskolea ienacissima ,,n 


Girardinia Leschcnaultiana ^ 


» > • 

»« • 

• « ■ 



Laportea crennlata 

rarielaria Indica 

Pilea radicans 
Pouzolzia auriculata 



Indica ..• 

• • • 

• « ■ 

• « • 

• « * 

« * V 

« ■ • 

• • « 

— rostra ta ... 
Splitgerbera macrostachya 
Urtica acerifolia 


- interrupta 
laxijlora ... 



■ * 

• # # 

an trust ifulia 

A* • 




... 1973 


... 1978 












... No. 3 

...No. 41 


*• « 

- aspcra No. 15 

- auriculata 1980-2 No. 36 

- Bcnnettiana 1978 No. 10 

- bicuspidata ..• No. 33 

Borbonica ... No. 39 

caudata No. 23 

No. 14 

... No, 53 

1979-2 No. 29 

cordata ... 


• « • 

• • • 

« • • 






. Indica ... 1980-1 No. 42 
integrifolia 1979-1 No. 2 

• # « 

No. 21 

No. 32 
No, 7 
No. 20 
No. 9 
No. 51 

• * « 

■ « • 

ft •• 


. wblQTigUglia 

« • I 

No, 4 9 

No. 12 
No. 30 
No. 40 

No. 5 

No. 26 
No. 2 7 

Pouzolxia ovalift>lia 
orata .. 

• ft • 

« * • 

* # • 

■ « • 

» ■ « 

Leschenaultiana Q 1976 — 






procumbens ... 


pyramidata ... 



Kheedil ... 




scabrida ... 







No. 4 
No. 25 


5 5 

• ft • 

■ » « 

# « * 

m • 9 

• « ■ 

« « » 

* * 

— vcsu^ana 

— Walkeriana 

— Wallicbiana 
. Wightii 

— Zeylanica 

Parictaria hracteala 


_— jiidiaca 


_ Zeylanica 

Urtica ulienata 






• « « 

No. 16 
No. 4 7 

No. 35 
No. 54 
No. 50 
No. 52 
No. 19 
... No. 37 

1980-3 No. 34 

No. 3 1 
No, 22 
No, 38 
No. 18 
No, 43 
No. 1 1 
No. 48 

No. 8 

No. 28 
No. 44 

... No. 45 
No, 17 

No. 24-28 

No. 13 

... No. 46 


No. 42 

No. 55 

No, 55 
No. 4 6 

No. 46 

No, 39 

No. 16 

No, 4 3 
No. 44 

No. 45 

« • » 

ft« ft 



• • • 

• •ft 

«• ■ 

• • ft 

« a • 


■ t • 

Batis spinofia 
Covellia guttata ... 
Dorstenia Indica 
Epicarpurus orientalis 

Ficus Bengalcnsis ... 


ft > » 

ft « • 

• ft • 

riecosiKirmum spinosum ,,. 

Pogonotrophe macrocarpa 

Tropins aspcra 


• ■ > 

» « tt 

ft ft * 











Urostigma religiosum 

^^ Bengalcnse 


Callitriche Wightiana 


Ceratophyllnni missionis ... 1948-4 

DiurJeatum 1948-1-2 


Mo. Bot. Garden 




Ceratophyllum tuT3erculatnm- 1948-3 

verticillatum 1948 


Antidesma acuminata 
Astylis vgniista 

«• • 

• • ■ 




Chloranthus Indicus 

, officinalis 

Sarcandra chlorantlioides 


Chavica Betle 

— — peepuloides .,. 



• » • 



• • 

# • « 

• « • 

• • » 

- sphsDrostachya 


« • « 

Cubcba Walliclm ,,. 
Muldera tricliostachya 

— — Wightiana 

Peperomia Courtallensis 

Dindigulensis ... 


• portulacoides ... 



i'iper arborescens 

■ argyropliyllum 



f V 

• • • 

■ t • 

• • • 


trioicum ^ and 9 

• •« 


Pothomorphe snbpeltata ... 


Salix ichnostachya 


Macclellandia Griffithiana 


Gnetum funiculare ... 







... 1938 


... 1937 



• •• 

• • • 

• 4 • 



• »* 



Dioscorea aculeata 

• • • 

• oppositifolia 



Roxburghia gloriosoides 


Asparagus Asiaticus ... 

• •* 

- racemosus 

Dianella ensifolia 
Smilax maculata 

• •# 

• ft* 

• •P 

Zeylanica o 

Zeylanica ^ 


Govindooia nervosa . . . 


• »• 





..» 2090 

Alpinia AUugafi 


• nutans 


»• ■ 

■ »t 

• t » 

• f » 




Costus Nepauhnsis 

«« • 

#« « 

• • • 


Curcuma aromatica 



Elettaria cannsecarpa 
Globba bulbifera 

Careyana ... 


' ophioglossa 



t ■ ■ 

• *• 

• • * 

• • • 

* ■ t 

• ■ . 

■ a ■ 

Hedychium cernuum 

— — coronariuni 

. flavescens 

• * • 

• # » 

• » • 

» t 



Kaempferia rotunda 
Monolophus scaposus 
Roscoea alpina 


Zingiber squarrosuni 



Maranta artmdinacea 

— V i rgat a 

Phrynium capitatnm 


• • • 

f • a 


2008 -9 



• V » 



• » ft 


Musa superba ,,. 



« • V 

ft ft * 

Agave vivipera 
Crinum latifolium 

— toxicariurn,.. 
Pancratium verecundum .. 


Curculigo brevifolia 

latifolia ..» 

orchioides .,, 


.. 2024 




■ •ft 

ft ft ft 

• ft ft 

Ilypoxis brachystacbya 
— . latifolia 


minor „, 





■ •ft 














^^^^ Bracena terminatis 




Liliura Neilgherrense 
• tubifloram 


« ftft 

• ft V 


• ft ft 


Anihericum tuberosum 
Asphodelus parviflorus 
Barnardia Indica 
LedeboTiria hyacinthina ... 
Phalangium attenuatum .. 



Scilla Coroniandeliana 
- Indica 

ft ft* 

ft ft ft 

ft ft ft 

ft ft ft 


• i# 



Urginia congesta 



ft ft ft 

ft ft • 




Disporum Ceylanicnm ... 


Gloriosa superba ... 


Ophiopogon Indicus ... 
Peliosanthes Courtallensis 


Aclisia Indica... 

9 t 9 





Aneilenia ensifolia 

hispid a 


man tana , 

ff • • 

ft « • 

ft • ft 

• ft ft 

t « ft 

■ ft »■ 



secunda ., 


tuherosa ... 

vaginata ... 

Commelyna l^ngalensis 

- — — ■ ciiatata 





Cyanotis Burmanniana 

cristata ... 

decumbcns ... 


foscicxilata ,.. 


Lawiuna ... 


ft ft • 

ft « « 

■ ■ • 

ft ft » 

• ft ft 

• •ft 

ft • • 



tuber osa 

* ft ft 

ft ft ft 


Dichospcrmum juncoides ... 

• lanccolatum 

: repens 

IJictyospermum montanum 


Dithyrocarpus petiolatus 
Kothii ... 

• »ft 

Ileterocarpus glaber 




«• . 

Murda ^ 

Streptolirion volubiJe 

Tradescantia cristata 

faacicidata ... 

paniculata ... 



ft ft • 

ft ft * 


... 2068 


.. 2072 


.. 2077 

. 2077 


.. 2073 

.. 2076 


. 2076 



. 2077 


















I776'bis. N0TH0S.KRVA BRACHiATA (R, W. Pseu^ 
danthits, R. W. non Lieber,) This plate was acci- 
dentally omitted in its proper place. Since the pub- 
lication of that Part (vol., v. Part 2d), I have learned 
that the name Pseudanthus is preoccupied, I therefore 
request that the name Nothos^rva may be substi- 
tuted (nothos^ spurious), in allusion to its resem- 
blance to a true yErva. 


This order in 1830, and for some years subsequent, 
was limited to 2 genera, Peperomia and Piper. Since 
then it has been carefully revised by Professor Miquel 
of Amsterdam, who in 1843, published his elaborate 
monograph of the order; in which he raised the 
number of genera to 20, and the species to about 600. 
Since the publication of that work he has made some 
further additions to the number of species, which may 
now be estimated at about 700. Of these 20 genera, 
illustrations, more or less perfect, of six will be found 

m the following 25 plates. The number of species 
might have been increased had I felt sure that I had 
so fai- mastered the specific distinctions as to avoid 
errors of nomenclature. Of this, however, I did not 
feel sure and have therefore, Mith one or two excep- 
tions, limited my illustrations to species named by the 
accomplished author himself, and shall therefore ex- 
ceedingly regret, should I afterwards find that in 
these exceptions I have fallen into errors. 

Professor Miquel divides the order into two groups 
P€peromie(B and Piperea. Of 4 genei'a referred to 
the first division, Peperomia is the only one yet found 
in India. Of the Pipere^B, 7 of their 16 genera have 
Asiatic representatives. Of these 7, five are here 
illustrated. Of these, Muldera has only recently be- 
come known as an Indian genus, the original species 
being from Java. Rhincholepis and Zippelia are from 
the same country, but as they also may yet be found 
in India, I introduce their character into the follow- 
ing synopsis. 

« ■ ■ 



• •« 

• «• 

• «1» 

Section L Pepere.e spuria, catkins aggregated on an axillary branch, 

Section IL Pipeue^ ver.b, stipules opposite the leaves and petiols, usually deciduous, catkins 

opposite the leaves, solitary, 
Dioicous — 

a Berries sessile, 

1 Bracts pedicelled, peltate, 4 -angled, styles none or rarely short, 

2 Bracts i)edicelled, peltate with a long acumen, style long, 

3 Flowers from a fleshy cup opening transversely, 
6_ Berry contracted at the base into a pedicel, 

Dioicous and hermaphrodite, bracts oblong, sessile, decurrent, 
Hermaphrodite, flowers pedicelled, berry hispid, leaves multiple-nerved. 
This synopsis is an extract, slightly abridged, from MiqueFs table. 


«« » 

« • « 

«• • 

« ■ « 

• •• 


• « 9 

«• * 

• «« 

t « « 

• #» 






1921. Peperomia DiNDiGULENsis (Miquel), erect, costulatis), or somewhat 3-nerved from the 2 costute 

branches opposite, succulent, puberulous or rarely 
glabrous ; leaves shortly petioled, opposite (lower ones 
sometimes alternate and the terminal ones ternate) ; 
elliptic, obovate, or the larger ones rhorabio-obovate, 
acute at the base, rounded, obtuse or shortly acumi- 
nate at the apex ; 5-nerved, sparingly puberulous or 
sometimes glabrous: catkins terminal, short pedun- 
cled, filiform, erect; flowers somewhat remote, stigma 
puberulous : berries globose. 

In moist soil in woods often found forming dense 
tufts on old mossy branches of trees. In some point 
the specimen represented does not quite agree with 
the character, but as corresponding ones were named 
by the author, I have no doubt this is only a more 
luxuriant form than that fi-om which the character 
was taken. I have gathered it on the Pulney Moun- 
tains, Anamallay Hills, and Neilgherries, 

1922-1. Pepbkomia Heyneana (Miq.), erect, de- 
cumbent and rooting below, succulent, stem pilose or 
glabrous: leaves opposite, the upper ones in whorls 
of three or four, lanceolato-elliptic, obtuse or emar- 
ginate at the apex, acute or cuniate at the base, glab- 
rous, brown spotted, sometimes slightly ciliate at the 
apex, one-nerved with smaller vein-ribs (vcnuloso- 


rising at the base : catkins (aments) axillary and 
terminal, i>eduncled, filiform, erect : flowers somewhat 
remote, ovary ovate, bearing the stigma on the apex. 
Tins like the former is a native of woods, growing 
on branches of trees or moist rocks. Also in open 
ground on rocks moistened by adjoining springs. 


succulent, glabrous, sparingly branched, creeping, 
deeply rooting, leafless below : leaves opposite, upper 
ones ternate, short petioled, succulent, glanduloso- 
punctuate, obovate, oblong, or sub-spathulate, obso- 
letely three- rarely 5-ncrved : catkins axillary and 
terminal, solitary, longish peduncled, shorter than the 
peduncles, cylindi'ical, obtuse. 

Common in alpine stations, gi'owing in thick tufts 
on moist rocks or branches of trees. This species 
is described from Mauritius specimens, but mine 
were named by Professor Miquel, and answer to 
the chai-acter. 

1923-1. Peperomia refi^exa (Dietr. and Miq.), 
succulent, coriaceous, rooting at the base, ascending, 
erect, di- or trichotomously branched, slightly puberu- 
lous or glabrous : leaves ternate or quaternate, (rare- 

( 1 ) 


ly six at the forks) pctioled, succulent, pellucid punc- 
tuate, rhombio-elliptic, obtuse or roundish, rarely re- 

tuse, contracting below into a short petiol, minutely 

A universally cultivated plant and doubtless pre- 
senting numerous variations. The figure, which is 
K 1 u 1 . 1 o :. , , - • , one of Roxburgh's, differs in some points from the 

1 ubcrulous, obsoletely 3-nerved below, speckled with above character, and seems defective in its repre- 
depressed brown points ; petiols united into a rinsr at sentatiou of the nerves which, however, I did not feel 

myself at liberty to alter, when sending the draw- 
ing to the Lithographer, as it bears Koxburgh's name 
as its authority, and I ' " 


the base : peduncles terminal, nearly as long as the 
catkins : catkins cylindrical, deeply pitted, rough. 

A very common plant on the Neilgherries on 
branches of trees and seems pretty generally dif- 
fused in alpine ranges. 

1923-2. Peperomia court allensis (Miq.), erect, 
succulent, glabrous, oppositely and alternately branch- 
ed : leaves moderately pctioled, opposite, or the upper 
ones verticelled, and usually larger; all varying in 
form and size, elliptic-oblong, or obovate, acute or 
attenuated at the base, rounded or alternately obtuse 
and einarginate at the apex ; and there the younger 
ones ciliolate, equal or unequal-sided, pellucid punc- 
tuate, pale beneath, obsoletely one- or 3-nerved : cat- 
kins axillary or terminal; solitary or aggregated, 
erect, straightish ; longish peduncled, rather densely 
flowered: berries somewhat immersed, obliquely ovate. 
Miq. in Hook. Bot. Jour., vol. 5, p. 549. 

Courtallum, forming patches on branches of trees 
or on moist rocks : flowering August and September, 
I think I have also met with this species on the 



Peperomia Wightiana (Miq.), herbaceous, 
succulent, erect, rooting at the base, pubescent : leaves 
alternate, or the upper ones opposite, petiolcd, the 
lower ones smaller, roundish or obovate, the rest 
elliptic or obovato-elliptic obtuse, acute at the base, 
glabrous ; the younger ones somewhat ciliate at the 
apex, obsoletely 3-nerved; pellucid pointed, pale 
beneath; catkins longish peduncled, axillary, soli- 
tary, or the terminal ones aggregated, ftliform, erect, 
remotely flowered : berries ovate, sub-oblique. 
Malabar, in woods. 



their length whig- 


membranaceous, pellucido-puuctuate, sub-glabrous on 
the nerves and veins, beneath, towards the margin, 
pubernlous between the veins, roundish reniforni, 
cordate, acute, 11-13-nerved; the middle nerve trifid 
* above the base : petiols for | or 
ed ; wing evanescent : peduncles" paired, unequal, 2- 
or several-spiked : bracts triangular, ciliate : seed 
black, ariolatc, obovate, 3-sided. 

A widely dispersed species inhabiting, in India, 
dense humid subalpine forests. I first found it at 
Courtallum, but since then have met with it in many 
other localities. It occurs on the eastern slopes of 
VaQ Neilgherries, in moist ground, at an elevation of 
about 5000 feet. 


Chavica Betle (Miq.), shrubby, scandent, 
rooting, branches striated : leaves membranaceous, 
or the adult ones coriaceous, pellucido-puuctuate; 
shining above, glabrous on both sides; the inferior 
ones ovate, broadly cordate, acutely acuminate, equal- 
sided; the upper ones unequal sided, slightly un- 
equally cordate, or rounded at the base, shortly 
acuminate or acute, septuple or quintuple-nerved: 
catkins peduncled ; male ones long slender, patulous 
or deflexed ; female deflexed, shorter, long pedun- 
cled : stigmas 5 or 6. 

believe correctly represents 
the specimen from which it was taken. 

1927- Chavica peepuloides (Miq.), branches 
petiols and peduncles, delicately pubernlous : leaves 
membranaceous, pellucido-puuctuate, glabrous : in- 
ferior ones ovate, equal-sided, rounded at the base, 
acuminate at the apex, septuple or seven-nerved ; 
the upper ones oblong lanceolate or lanceolate, un- 
equal-sided, slightly unequal at the base, acute or 
acuminate at the apex ; quiutuple-nerved : male 
catkins short-peduncled, straight or curved, much 
shorter than the leaves : bracts shortly pedicclled, 
peltate, orbicular : diandrous. 

The character of this species is taken from a male 
plant, the drawing apparently from a female. It is 
a native of Silhct. 

1928. Chavica Roxburghii (Miq.), stem some- 
what shrubby, the sterile ones decumbent, the fiorif- 
erous ones ascending, dichotoiuously branched, at 
first slightly downy, afterwai'ds glabrous, inferior 
leaves long petioled, ovate, roundish, broadly cordate ; 
acute or obtuse; seven-nerved; upper ones short 
petioled ; top ones sessile, embracing the stems, ob- 
long, unequally cordate, 5-nerved, all thick mem- 
branaceous, finely pellucid punctuate : petiols and 
nerves beneath, especially near the base, finely 
downy, afterwards glabrous : male catkins filiform, 
cylindrical, with the peduncle as long as the leaves ; 
female ones thicker, less than half that length, about 
the length of the peduncle : stigmas 3-4, lanceolate. 

This plant is extensively cultivated for its fruit, 
which is the "long pepper" of the shops. I have 
never met with it except in gardens, and then only 
as single plants. It is readily propagated by cut- 
tings. The stems are annual, but the roots live sev- 
eral years, and when cultivated, usually yield three 
or four crops, after which they seem to become ex- 
hausted and require to be renewed by fresh planting, 

1929. Chavica sarmentosa (Miq.), stem some- 
what shrubby, sterile ones decumbent, rooting, florife- 
rous ones erect, dichotomously branched, below glab- 
rous, ramuli finely downy: lower leaves long petiol- 
ed, roundish cordate or broadly ovato-cordate, shortly 
and obtusely acuminate, seven-nerved or decuple- 
nerved ; upper ones short petioled or sub-sessile, 
ovate oblong, unequal-sided, unequally cordate or 
rounded at the base, acuminate, quintuple-nerved, all 
thick membranaceous, thickly pellucid pointed ; petiols 
and nerves beneath downy, glabrous above : female 
catkins short, thick, cylindrical, as long as the pedun- 
cle : stigmas 4, lanceolate- 
Native of the Eastern Archipelago whence it was 

introduced into the Calcutta Bot. Garden. Miqucl 

seems to think this very nearly allied to the former, 
notwithstanding the figures of the two plants seem 
so very distinct. The fruit, like that of the preced- 
ing, is gathered and sold under the same name, 

1930, Chavica sylvatica (Miq.), stem fruticose, 
scandent, glabrous : leaves all petioled, equally cor- 

( 2 ) 

date, obtuse ; base of the lobes broad orbicular, 5-7- 
nervcd, glabrous : male catkins shortly ped'unclcd, 
slender ; female, short cylindrical : stamens 4. 

Native of the i^orth Eastern Provinces of Bengal. 
This plate is taken, like the preceding^ from Roxburgh's 
drawing, but the name was accideutally omitted when 
sending it to the Lithographer. 

1931. Chavica sph^rostachya (Miq.), glabrous, 
leaves somewhat coriaceousj scarcely pellucid dotted, 
elliptic, unequal-sided, acute or cuniate at the base, 
acuminate; acumen blunt, sometimes mucronate; sep- 
tuple-nerved : male catkins filiform ; female, globose : 
bracts pedicelled, orbiculate : stigmas thin, short, re- 
curved, connate at the base. 

Eastern Islands, Nepanl, and common on the Neil- 
gherries, where the specimens represented were ob- 
tained. It seems to be in flower or fruit at all sea- 
sons, is an extensive climber and covers the adjoining 
trees with a dense mass of vegetation. *. 

1932, CuBEBA Wallichii (Miq.), ramuli and the 
petiols of the young leaves, slightly downy, soon glab- 
rous : leaves epunctulate, oblong, slightly imequal- 
sided, acute ; deeply cordate, equal at the base ; lobes 
rounded, nine to 13-plenerved, the three middle nerves 
remote from the base : berry -bearing catkins spread- 
ing, thick : the berries globose, a little produced at 
the apex by the remains of the stigma ; shorter than 
the, somewhat thickened upwaz'ds, pedicel. 

The following description of the specimen figured 
is from the same pen, and will account for its publi- 
cation. I now regret not having copied MiqueFs 
figures of. the fructification into my plate, which 
would have made it much more complete. 

" Cubeba, male specimen. — Leaves coriaceous ovate 
or elliptic acute, acuminate, 5-7-plenerved, three mid- 
dle ones distinct from the base : catkins long filiform, 
flowers arranged in rings or fascicles : bracts coriace- 
ous, obtuse, adnate at the base, concave, glabrous : 
stamens near a fasciculus of short hau'S. 

" Malabar. 

" This specimen probably appertains to C WaUi^ 
chit of which I have as yet only seen the female, 
which difters in having the leaves cordate at the 
base : since however in this genus the leaves of both 
sexes often differ in form and magnitude, I may be 
deceived in this opinion." 

scription and figure of this species. The female 
catkin in his specimen, which is younger than mine, 
is about the length of the male one of my plant, or 
less than half the length of that of my specimen. 
As, however, my plant corresponds in other respects, 
I believe it is tlie same species. He had not seen 
male catkins and only very young female ones, and 
I know that in ray plant they lengthen as the seed 
advance towards maturity. 

1934. Piper nigrum (Linn.), stem shrubby, 
climbing, rooting, round ; leaves coriaceous, glabrous, 
pale glaucous beneath ; adult ones revolute on the 
mai'gins ; the lower ones, roundish ovate, about 
equal-sided, slightly cordate or truncated at the base, 
septuple or noveno-nerved, namely the three middle 
ones each separating above the base and extending 
to the point 5 upper ones ovato-elliptic, or elliptic, 
usually unequal-sided, acutely acuminate, 7-5-nerv- 
ed: catkins hermaphrodite or female, filiform, pendu- 
lous, shortly peduncled, shorter than the leaves: 
bracts linear oblong, yellow on the margin : rachis 
between the bracts rough : stamens two, thick, stig- 
mas 3-4, rarely 5, thick, lanceolate : berries globose, 
red when ripe ; floriferous calycule in the hermaphro- 
dite 4-lobed. 

Malabar. The figures are taken from specimens 
named by Dr. Miquel, but little dependence can be 
placed on the forms presented by specimens taken from 
cultivated plants of species that have been so long in 
cultivation as this one has- My impression, and I 
think it is also becoming Miquel's, is that Piper tri' 

oicum is the original type of P. nigrum^ and that the 
latter should merge in the former. 

1935-6. Piper trioicum (Roxb.), stem shrubby, 
sarmentose (throwing out runners) and creeping : leaves 
coriaceous, dark green above, light glaucous below; 
somewhat obliquely elliptic (the lower ones sub-cor- 
date) acuminate, rounded or subacute at the base ; 
the upper ones lanceolate oblong, 5-7-tupIe-nerved : 
catkins trioicous ; males filiform, females more rigid 
and shorter : bracts 3 series ; of the hermaphrodites 
4 series ; the younger ones delicately ciliate, some 
glabrous ; floriferous pit rough ; ovary sub-globose, 
3-4 stigmas : floriferous calycule of the hermaphrodite 
catkins 2-lobed. 
It is with a view to making known the aspect of The accompanying plates are taken from Box- 

a plant, referable to a genus almost unknown in Con- 
tinental India, that this imperfect figure has been 
introduced, in the hope that it may lead to the dis- 
covery of the fructiferous plant which should be dis- 
tinguishable by having the berries not sessile or im- 
mersed in the spike, but borne on a distinct pedicel. 

1933. Piper attentjatum (Hamilt.), scandent, 
rooting and giving off suckers, young shoots glab- 
rous : leaves membranaceous obsoletely pellucido- 
punctuate ; glabrous above, the petiols veins and 
nerves beneath roughish; the lower ones long pe- 
tioled, cordate, ovate acuminate, 9-nerved ; upper 
ones broadly ovate, truncated at the base, 7- or sep- 
tuple-nerved ; female catkins slender filiform, short 
peduncled; peduncle much shorter than the leaves; 
bracts adnate oblong; ovary elliptic, stigmas 4, 
roundish, deflexed. 

Neilgherries, Eastern slopes. There is a discre- 

burgh's drawings and must therefore represent the 
true plant. Subsequent to Miquel's writing the above 
characters he had an opportunity of examining spe- 
cimens from the South of India, and seems now to 
think that this species is scarcely distinct from P. 
nigrum^ but consigns their examination and final 
determination to the careful consideration of Indian 
Botanists. My own impression is that the species 
are too much wii'e drawn, but of course in this I am 
likely enough to be in error, as I have, as yet, had 
neither leisure nor materials necessary to admit of 
my undertaking its minute examination, without which 

it would be premature to express a decided opinion. 

1937. Piper stjlvestre (Lamarck), stem shrubby, 
scandent, rooting: leaves membranaceous pcUucido- 
punctuate, glabrous, green above, glaucous beneath, 
ovate, acuminate, oblique at the base, or in the lower 
ones somewhat cordate and equal, 7-nerved, the three 

pancy in the specimen represented and Miijuel's de- middle ones extending to the apex : male catkms 

C 3 ; 

peduncled, filiform, pendulous ; bracts linear oblong : 
female about the length of the leaves ; bracts oblong 
roughish beneath : stigmas 4, reflexed, deciduous. 

Courtallum. In dense woods climbing on trunks 
of trees like Ivy. 

1938. PiPEK KEPAI.ENSE (Mig.), youugcr leaves 
membranaceous, the adult ones membranaceo-coria- 
ceous, glabrous on both sides, pellucido-pnnctnate ; the 
lower ones obliquely ovate, or elliptico-ovate, nearly 
equal and rounded at the base, acuminate, and like 
those of the branches 7-tuple-nerved; those of the 
male plant narrower; female catkins erect, after- 
wards spreading (patulous) about the length of the 
leaves : bracts oblong, beneath and the rachis rough- 
ish : ovary acuminate: stigmas 3-4, lanceolate, deflex- 
ed, pubescent : berries ovate acute- 

Courtallum, in dense forests climbing on trees. 
There are some discrepancies here between the char- 
acter and figure, but not of essential importance. 

1939. Piper AViGHTii (Miq., erroneously P. Wigh- 
tiana on the plate), leaves coriaceous, membranaceous, 
finely pellucido-punctuate, glabrous, smooth above 
beneath, on the younger ones, sparingly hairy, ovate 
or elliptico-ovate, shortly acuminate, slightly unequal, 
rounded at the base, 7 -nerved, (or the 3 middle ones 
united at the base) somewhat septuple-nerved, female 
catkins afterwards elongating equaling or exceed- 
ing the leaves, spreading ; peduncles longer than the 
petiols : bracts oblong, linear, somewhat membraua- 

1941. Piper akgtropiiyllum (Miq.), glabrous' 
the upper leaves membranaceous, thickly white spot- 
ted beneath, light opaque green above, obliquely ellip- 
tico-lanceolate, taperingly acuminate, neai'ly equal- 
sided, acute or cuniately tapering at the base, the 
lower septuple^ the upper ones quintuple-nerved, the 
lateral nerves not extending to the apex: female 
catkins peduncled : peduncles about the length or 
sometimes exceeding the petiols : bracts oblong, glab- 
rous above, subciliate ; ovary elliptic, glabrous : stig- 
mas 3-4, broadly lanceolate from the base^ revolutely 
recurved, pubescent : berries ovate, shortly beaked, 
black when dry : testa of the seed dark brown, shin- 
ing, wrinkled. 

My only specimen of this plant is a male one, the 
counterpart of which it would appear Dr. IMiquel had 
not seen as his description altogether refers to the 
female plant. So far as the habit and foliage is con- 
cerned it seems to agree with the character of the 
species, but it looks so like the following, that I 
almost suspect they are the male and female of the 
same species. 

1942. Piper HYMENOPiirLLuM (Miq.), younger 

branches petiols and nerves on the under surface of the 

leaves, crisply roughish (crispatulo-hirtillis) ; leaves 
thinly membranaceous, ti'ansparent, elliptic, attenu- 

ately acuminate ; acumen pointed or slightly blunt ; 
base acute, equal-sided, quintnple-nerved; the lower 
nerves very slender, the upper ones, by interlacing, 
stronger, scarcely extending to the point: peduncles 
twice as long as the petiols : female catkins about the 

ceous : stigmas 3 or 4, 

Pulney Mountains above Cunnawaddy, Courtal- 
lum, Bababuden hills, Mysore ? I am not quite cer- length of the leaves : bracts linear oblong, adnate, 

tain in regard to the last station, the specimens being undulated, stigmas 3-4. 

male only. My others are female, but they seem 
the same species. I am indebted to the kindness 
of Dr. H. Cleghorn for them. Dr. Miquel compares 
this with P. attemiatum, Nepalense^ and syhestre^ with 

all of which it more or less corresponds, but he thinks 
readily distinguished by its rigid coriaceous leaves, a 
mark which the figure cannot show. 

1940. Piper arbobescens ? (Miq.), stem shrubby, 
scandent, the younger leaves membranaceous, the 
adult ones thick, coriaceous, shining above, glauces- 

cent beneath, puberulous on the nerves, elliptic or 
ovate elliptic, obliquely shortly acuminate, unequal 
at the base 5- or somewhat 7-tuplc-nerved : pedun- 
cles about the length of the petiols : male catkins 
short, somewhat curved, bracts orbicular, diandrous : 
females filiform, pendulous, at length very long, 
bracts linear oblong, sessile ; stigmas 3-4, berries 

Neilgherries. Fruit yellowish, passing into red when 

Much as the specimens selected for representation 

differ in some points from the character, especially 

in regard to the length of the male catkins, I can 

hardly hesitate in considering this the species I have 

named, for many of my specimens, taken from the 

same plant, perfectly correspond with that part of 

the character. The point on which my doubts rest, 

and an account of which I have added a mark of 

doubt to the specific name, is the discrepancy in the 
form of the female bracts. This is a fine species, 
climbing on trees and forming large masses of pen- 
dulous herbage round their trunks and lower branches. 

I got it in a fine state of fructification in the months 
of April and May. 


As already remarked, this seems to me the female 
of the preceding, and, so far as description goes, it 
does not appear to differ from the plant defined. I 
fear too much stress has been laid on characters 
taken from the relative lengths of the inflorescence 
and leaves, and on the forms of the bracts, in the 
discrimination of the species of this genus. I make 
the remark mainly for the purpose of directing atten- 
tion to the subject- 

1943. Muedera ■\Vightiana (Miq.), leaves ovate 
or ovato-clliptic, obliquely and acutely acuminate ; 
equal and roundish at the base, septuple-nerved, the 
three middle nerves continued to the apex, (reddish 
beneath) membranceo-coriaceous, pellucido-{>unctu- 
ate : male catkins long peduncled, filiform, longer than 
the leaves, many-flowered : cups reflexed, clavate ; 
opening transversely near the apex ; hairy within. 

Courtallum, in dense forests, flowering during July 
and August. 

The above character applies to the male plant 
that on the righthand side of the plate- The other, 
the female, seems to differ a little, but is I think the 
same species, though, T strongly suspect it is the M, 
galeata of Miquel. I have specimens of the female 
form from both the Neilgherries and Courtallum. 
On the supposition that it is indeed that species, I 
subjoin Miquel's character of it. 

MuEDERA GAi^ATA (Miq.), Icavcs broad or hm* 
ceolato-elliptic, somewhat acute and acuminate, slight- 
ly unequal-sided, obtuse or acutish at the base ; septu- 
ple- or quintuple- nerved, the middle nerves fj*ee from 
a little above the base extending to the apex, some- 




( 4 ) 


what stiffly coriaceous, pellucido-punctuate : female 
catkins long peduncled, shorter than the leaves, glab- 
rous: flowers rather I'emote: cups obliquely clavate, 
the exterior lip galiate, the interior smaller : ovary 
depressed, globose : stigmas 3-4, small. 

The female figure of the plate seems upon the 
whole to correspond pretty well with this character, 
though there are undoubted discrepancies; these how- 
ever will, I suspect, on comparing a number of 
specimens, be found referable rather to individual 
peculiarities of specimens than to specific differences. 


leaves lanceolate or oblong lanceolate, equal-sided, 
moderately acutely acuminate, base equal, obtuse or 
acute, quintuple -nerved, coriaceous, pellucido-punc- 
tuate ; x>cduncles glabrous, about the length of the 
petiols : male catkins elongated : cups obliquely 
sub-globose, constricted at the base, puberulous or 
hairy within, 

Malabar, in forests climbing on trees. This spe- 
cies seems very distinct from AT. Wightiana^ as shown 

by the shape of the flower cups. 

1945. Chtx)ranthus Inbicus (R. \V.), shrubby, 
ramous : leaves short petioled, broadly oval, obtuse 
at both ends, crenately serrated, glabrous ; pedun- 
cles terminal, spicately panicled : flowers numerous, 

The order CMoranthac€<e is a small one, consist- 

which I find he took from specimens in a state too 

young for satisfactory dissection. The figures 5, 6, 
and 8 are all wrong and ought not to have been in- 
troduced into the plate. 

1947. Callitrichk Wightiana (Wall.), stems 
depressed, creeping r leaves all obovate, tapering at 
the base, obtuse, 3-nerved : flowers neai'ly sessile ; 
the pedicels without bracteoles : fruit of 4 equal lobes, 
each with a winged keel at the back ; pericai'p mem- 
branous and cellular. 

Frequent on the Neilgherries, in swampy gi'ound 
and streams. 

1948, I. n. Ckbatophyixtjm MURicATUM (Cham.), 
fruit elliptical, slightly compressed, furnished with 3 
(or occasionally 4) spines, winged, not gibbous ; spines 
slender, weak ^ wiiig narrow, regularly many-toothed ; 

sides of the fruit convex, more or less mm-icated, par- 
ticularly towards the apex. 

Tanjore and Coimbatore in wells. Figure I., in 
the accompanying plate, was taken from recent speci- 
mens gathered in Coinibatore. Figure II., from the 
specimen from which the above character was taken. 
There are some differences in the aspect which how- 
ever do not appear of specific value. 


1948. III. Ceratophti.lum tubercdlatum (Cham.), 
fruit ellipsoidal, slightly compressed, not gibbous, 

furnished with 3 spines, wingless ; spines at first 

slender and weak, afterwards strong^ sides of the 

ing of 4 or 5 genera, and distinguished like most of fruit convex, finely tubercled. 

the peppers by having neither calyx nor corolla. 

Chloranthis is distinguished from the following by 
having a broadly dilated 3-lobed filament which 
seems to perform the functions of a perianth. The 
middle lobe bears a perfect 2-celled anther, and each 
of the lateral ones a one -celled one, or half anther, so 
that in place of the genus being triandrous, as usually 
described, it seems more properly diandrous with 
the posterior anther split into two halves. This is 
shown in figures 5 and 6 of the plate. The species 
here represented may perhaps prove Blume's C 
officinalis which I have not seen, neither have I ac- 
cess to his character. 

Sarcandra (Gardner, Cal. Jour. vol. 6, p. 348.) 

Gen. Char. Flowers herraaphrcwiite, sessile in 
a boat-shaped bract. Perianth none, stamen one, 
inserted on the ovary ; filament thick and fleshy ; 
anther introrse, 2-celled, opening longitudinally. 
Ovary 1-ceIled, with a single pendulous ovule ; stigma 
sessile, depressed. Drupe 1-seeded, putamin thin, 
fragile, seed pendulous, testa membranaceous, embryo 
antitropous, enclosed in a fleshy albumen, radicle 
inferior. — A shrub, branches nodosely articulated: 
leaves opposite, petioled, penninerved, coai'sely glan- 
duloso-serrated ; petiols uniting at the base into a 
short stem-clasping sheath: inflorescence terminal, 
paniculately spiked- 



Ceylon, Pulney Mountains, Courtallura, &c. 

This is a rather common shrub in the sub -alpine 
jungles of the places indicated. In the figure — which 
was not prepared under my superintendence and, 
as regards the fruit, from imperfect specimens — the 
artist has not understood the sections of the fruit 

Tanjore in Wells. 

1948. IV. Ceratophtllum missionis (\Vall.)i fruit 
ellipsoidal, slightly compressed, not gibbous, furnished 
with 3 spines, winged; spines elongated, lateral ones 
flattened; the wing broader downwards and decur- 
rent along the base of the spines, with a few irregular 
teeth : sides of the fruit convex, finely tubercled. 

This and the last do not appear to have been dis- 
tinguished by the Missionaries : at least the specimen 
sent by Klein to Willdenow belongs to the one, while 
those from his (or the Madras) herbarium before us 
have the fruit of the present species : except in the 
presence or absence of the wing there is, however, no 
diiference, and we have merely separated them in 
deference to Chamisso's observations on the genus. 
Perhaps the whole three species ought to be combined 
as varieties under Roxburgh's name of C. verticillahtrn^ 
characterized as a species by the ellipsoidal, tubercled 
or muricatedj 3-spined, not gibbous, fruit. W. & A. 
Prod, 310. 

1949. Macaranga. For explanations of this 
plate see vol. 5, Part 2d, page 23, under No. 1883, 
where specific characters of each of the subjects here 
represented are given. 

1950, SAPiuMlwmcoM (Willd.), leaves, ovate, ob- 
long, acuminate, acutely serrated, biglandulose at tlie 
base: spikes solitary, male flowers fascicled, trian- 
drous: bracts supported by two fleshy glandular 
bodies: calyx 3-parted, lobes cordato-ovate, fringed : 
styles subulate, stigma simple, pointed. 

Mergui, Griffith. According to Roxburgh the juice 
of this tree is reckoned very poisonous* It is a 
native of the Delta of the Ganges, and, if Rheede's 

figure (Hort. mal. 4 tab. 51) be really this tree, also 

of Malabar, 



( 5 ) 


The dissections of the male flowers are taken from 1952-2. Sauropus Indica (R. W.)i shrubby: 
ttiiexpanded buds : the filaments therefore are shorter leaves varying from ovate acuminate to ovate lanceo- 
than the perianth, in full grown ones they are longer, lute, acute at both encb : peduncles axillary^ short, 

few-flowered : calyx sinuately 6-lobed ; lobes obtuse : 
ovary 3 -celled; styles 3, distinct, stigmas dilated: 
fruit about the size of a small goosebeny. 

Courtallum and Shevagherry Hills, flowering A.u- 
gust and September, but not apparently in its most 
perfect state as the specimens are not very good as 
regards either flowers or fruit. It is somewhat 
axillary, shorter than the males : ovary 2 -celled with variable in the form of the leaves. 

1950-2. Safium baccatum (Roxb., ^S^, populifo* 
iium^ R. W. In Icon.), arboreous, dioicous, ramous : 
leaves long petioled ovate oblong, acuminate, entire, 
glabrous, pale beneath : panicles axillary and ter- 
minal, spicate ; flowers fascicled, very minute, pedi- 
celled, diandrous : female racemes terminal and 

a single ovule in each, berries globular, seed solitary. 

Mergui, Griffith. I am indebted to the late Mi\ 
Griffith for the specimen represented, from which the 
character of the male plant is taken, that of the 
female is taken from Roxburgh, 

When naming the drawing I thought my plant 
different from Roxburgh's and named it accordingly, 
a second and more careful comparison with his ex- 
cellent description satisfies me that it is the same 
as his. I therefore request the name on the plate 
may be altered as above. 



Saukopus rktrovbrsa (R, W.), shrubby : 
distichous, short petioled, ovato-lanceolate 
rounded at the base, acute or somewhat acuminate, 
glabrous on both sides: peduncles axillary, short, 
many-flowered : flowers somewhat fascicled, opening 
in succession, longish pedicelled, drooping, calyx tu- 
I)ular, inverted, or tui'ned back on the pedicel so as 
to place the stamens on the apex : stamens 3, fila- 
ments united at the base into a column, female 
flowers ? 

I only know this plant from specimens gathered 
many years ago in Ceylon ; they are without female 
flowers, hence it may be disecious, though I think 
that scarcely probable. The curious feature in its 
structure is the calyx which is tubular, but becomes 
turned inside out and turned back, thus bringing the 
stamens to the surface. 

1951-2. Sauhopus Gardneriana (R. W.), shrub- 
by ; leaves broadly ovate or nearly oval, sub-cuspi- 
date, glabrous on both sides; peduncles axillary, 
short, many-flowered flowers, fascicled or opening m 
succession, pedicelled: calyx spreading, obsoletely 
six-lobed: female flower six-cleft: fruit about the 
size of a black currant- 
Ceylon, Gardner. The specimens from which my 
rather imperfect figure was taken, were communi- 
cated by the late Mr, Gardner, labeled, "742. Sau- 
ropus^ Ilautane.'* 

They are rather imperfect, especially as regards 
female flowers, and having only a solitary fruit. 

1952. Sauropus Zetlanica (R. W.), shrubby : 
leaves ovato-lanceolate, acute, rounded at the base : 
peduncles axillary, short, several-flowered, calyx six- 
lobed, lobes obtuse or sometimes acutish, spread- 
ing: female ? 

This I also gathered in Ceylon many years ago, 
the specimens seem to be without female flowers. 
The lobes of the calyx are represented too acute and 
prolonged in the plate, or if coirect in that particular 
instance the form is not constant as I find them in 
other flowers much more obtuse : this however seems 
quite distinct from both the preceding species, but 

most nearly approaches, S, Gardneriana. 

It approaches 
the S. Ze^lanica in appearance, but is certainly, I 
think, distmct. The genus however is as yet com- 
paratively unknown, so that we have still to learii 
the true specific characters. I have looked princi- 
pally to the calyx for them. 

1953. Salix ichnostaciita (Lindley in Wall. L. 
without a character), arboreous, leaves ovato-lanceo- 
late, acute or acuminate, crenately serrated ; shining 
above glaucous beneath : bracts short, obtuse, hairy : 
male flowers pentandi'ous ; female sub-scssile : cap- 
sule 4-seeded. 

Mysore, Shevaroy Hills, near Salem. The prin- 
cipal distinguishing features between this and the fol- 
lowing are found in the form of the bracts, the fewer 
stamens, the sub-sessile female flowers, and more 
coriaceous leaves. 

1954. Salix tktkasperma (Roxb,), leaves lanceo- 
late acuminate, fluely serrulate : bracts 2-lobed, upper 
one much larger, boat-shaped, slightly dentate on the 
margin : stamens about 8, much longer than the 
bracts : ovary pedicelled : stigmas 2, spreading, appa- 
rently 4-lobed : capsule pedicelledj 2-lobed, cells 2- 

Ootacamund, Coimbatore, and elsewhere. To what 
extent the above characters would seem to distinguish 
this from the numerous species of the genus, I am 
unable to say, but they are quite sufficient to distin- 
guish it from the preceding. 



dens f Roxb.), arboreous, scandent or climbing : leaves 
opposite, oval, or somewhat obovate, abruptly cuspi- 
dato- acuminate, glabrous : catkins axillary, cylindri- 
cal, longish peduncled, solitary or several aggregated 
iu the same axil: fruit obovate oblong, somewhat 
larger than a large olive. 

Malabar, in alpine jungles, also sparingly on the 
eastern slopes of the Xeilgherries where I have seen 
a tree of it climbing to the top of a very large 
banyan {Fims^ species not ascertained), where the 
extreme branches hang down to the extent of, I 
suppose, some 20 or 30 feet. 

The above description of the fruit is principally 
taken from Rheede*s plate, the fruit on my specimens 
not being sufficiently advanced. Smith's character of 
the species I do not understvind: ** lateral veins of 
the leaves separate to the margin," and again, "the 
leaves are 4-5 inches long, various in breadth, point- 
ed, firm, shining, distinguished by their veins conti- 
nuing distinct to the edge of the leaf." As in a mat- 
ter so simple it is scarcely possible he could have 
been mistaken, and as, in the specimens now before 
me, which quite correspond with Rheede's figure, 
I find no such peculiarity, the veins being distinctly 

reticulated on the margin, I fear we have got dif- 

( 6 ) 


ferent species before us, a point which cau scarcely feet. This small tree seems so much to resemble 

be determiued until our respective specimens are 

In its woody structure this plant presents a close 
affinity with Peppers^ transverse sections of the two 
being almost undistinguishable. 

1956. Tetrameles Grahamiana (R. W*, Anicto- 
clea Grahamiana^ Nimmo in Graham's cataL), leaves 
long petioled, cordate, short acuminated, serrated : 
male flowers pauicled, panicles terminal, corymbose, 

females racemose ; racemes long pendulous. 

Courtallum, Malabar, Ghauts, &c. 

I have followed Mr. Nimmo in the specific name, 
though I suspect this is not distinct from T, nudiflora^ 
Brown. The specimens from which the drawing was 
made were gathered at Courtallum, but I received 
others from Mr. Graham of Bombay, but all with- 
out leaves. 


1957. Artocarpus (Jaca) hirsuta (Lam.,Roxb.), 
leaves elliptic, obtuse, or rounded at both ends, glab- 
rous above, hairy, especially on the nerves, beneath : 
male catkins long cylindrical, about the thickness of a 
quill, at first ascending or erect, afterwards becoming 
pendulous : females oval, about the size of an egg ; 
fruit globose, echinate. 

Malabar, on arid red soils, also in forests whei'e 
it attains a great size, the trunk being large enough 
for canoes, for the formation of which the larger ones 
are principally used. Tlie drawings embodied in the 
plate were made at different times : the figiu-e of the 
tree and full grown fruit were taken from a tree gi'ow- 
ing near Trevandrum in May ; that of the flowering 
branch was executed at Telllcherry by the same artist 
(Rungia), but not under my inspection. I, however, 
believe them correct, though at variance with Rox- 
burgh's description and Rheede's figure, as regards the 
direction of the male catkins, the diffei'ence being 
referable to the difference of age. The tree figured 
is not a very good specimen, and I now suspect the 
likeness is not very good, but being the first I had 

Roxburgh's Urtica pulcherima that, for a long time, 

I thought it that plant. It does not, however, seem 
to have been known to Roxburgh, as it does not cor- 
respond with any of his descriptions. 

Fruit capitate, made up of an aggi'egation of small 
globose drupes. Sarcocarp fibrous, pulpy, studded 
over with minute resinous translucent tubercles; 
testa ovate, hard ; albumen copious ; embryo straight, 
as long as the albumen, radicle pointing towards the 

apex of the seed. Albumen oily : filaments straight 
in aestivation, 

I960, CuDRANiA JAVANENSI8 (Tricul, Anual des 
Sciences), leaves oblong lanceolate, entire, rounded 
at the base or acute, acuminate at the apex, mucro- 
nate, glabrous on both sides. 

The specimen from which the drawing was made 
I received from the Calcutta Botanic Garden, labeled 
Moms scandens^ a Chinese plant and may not, though 
it agrees pretty well with the chai'acter, be the true 

C javanensis. 

196L Epicarpurus orientalis (Blume, T?'ophis 
aspera, Willd., Roxb.), arboreous, leaves alternate, 
short petioled, obovate, cuspidato-acuminate, serrated 
towards the apex, very rough above : male flowers 
capitate, heads axillary, aggi-egated, short peduncled : 
females axillary, 1 or 2 together, longish pedicelled : 
fruit drupaceous, 1 -seeded: testa crustaceous: co- 
tyledons very unequal-sized, exalburainous ; radicle 
pointing towards the apex of the seed. 

A common small rigid stunted looking tree, com- 
mon all over India. Blume has mistaken the struc- 
ture of the seed, which he describes as albuminous 
with a curved inverted embryo and cochleate coty- 
ledons, in place of which it is composed of one very 
large cotyledon split half through and a very small 
one completely inclosed in the slit and concealed by 
the larger one. To bring it into view, it is necessary 
to tear off half the larger one as shown at figure 12, 
when the true structure at once becomes obvious- 
Figure 10 shows the seed as described by Blume, 
where the smaller cotyledon assumes the appearance 
of a small embryo with cochleate cotyledons. 

1962. Epicarpurus spinosa (R. W., TropJds 
spijiosa, Roxb. not Willdenow), arboreous, thorny : 
leaves oblong lanceolate, coarsely serrated towards 
the apex, glabrous : male flowers aggregated in the 
axils of the leaves and thorns : female flowers 1 or 2 
together, axillary ; calyx deeply 5-parted, lobes lan- 
ceolate, acute, much longer than the fruit. 

Courtallum, Ceylon. This seems a very rare plant 
in the Peninsula, as I do not recollect having seen it 
in any other station, and there it was a low thorny 

erect, ramous : leaves ovato-lancedate, acute or acu- The plant figured in the left hand corner of the 

plate is a new species of Epicarpur^is from Ceylon, 

communicated by Mr. Thwaites Avith the following 
character, since published in Hooker's Kew Garden 

seen I thouirht it well to have a sketch. 

1958. Antiaris saccidora (Dalzell, Lepurandra 
saccidora^ Nimmo in Graham's Cat.), arboreous : 
leaves ovate, oblong, acuminate, entire, glabrous 
above, slightly villous beneath : capitula axillaiy, ag- 
gregated ; peduncles about the length of the pedicels. 

Malabar, Ceylon, flowering during October. The 

specimens from which the drawings were made were 
obtained from Coorg* 

The above specific character will require to be 
modified when we become better acquainted with 
the whole genus. 

1959* Conocephalus niveus (R. W.), arboreous, 

minate, quintuple-nerved, acutely serrated, somewhat 
bullate above; prominently reticulate and white be- 
neath, strigosely hispid on both sides; inflorescence 
axillary, cymose : fruit capitate, drupaceous, drupes 
small, yellow, globose. 

Eastern slopes of the Neilgherries, frequent, com- 
mon also in many sub-alpine jungles. It extends 
as far south nearly as Cape Comorin in the jungles 
along the lower slopes of the hills. On the Neil- 
gherries it is met with at an elevation of about 5000 

Miscellany, voL 4, page L 

Epicarpurus Zeyi-anicus (Thwaites, Arnott). A 
ramous shrub, sparingly armed : leaves rhombio-lan- 
ceolate acuminate, glabrous, remotely spinuloso-ser- 
rate : male flowers densely capitulate, heads oblong : 
females racemose : fructiferous pedicels thickened at 
the apex and elongated. 

( 7 ) 



1963. PtECOsrERMUM SPINOSUM (Tricul, Batis 
spinosa^ Roxb., Trophis spinosa^ Willd.), sub-arbore- 
ous, diffuse, branches armed with long, sharp, some- 
what reflexed spines: leaves obovate, oblong, glabrous, 
shining : male flowers capitate, distinct ; female ones 
aggregated, immersed in a fleshy head : styles long 
filiform : cotyledons unequal, folded, the larger one 
enclosing the smaller. 

A rather common plant in thick jungles near the 
coast, it also occurs in the interior, but less frequently, 

1964. DoRSTENiA Indica (R. W.), herbaceous at 
first, procumbent and rooting, afterwards ascending 
erect : stem and petiols pilose : leaves penninerved, 
elliptic or elliptico-lanceolate, unequally serrated to- 
wards the apex, sparingly hairy above, more thickly 
on the veins beneath : peduncles axillary, solitary, 
cernuous or drooping: receptacle peltate, variously 
lobed on the margin. 

In moist shady woods on the Pulney Mountains, 
Courtallum, Neilgherries. 

The plant found in these various localities seems 
to T3e quite the same species, though it varies a little 
in its habit and aspect ; in some specimens the fruit 
is more erect than those shown in the figure, which 
seem to me rather too decidedly drooping as if the 
drawing was made from plants beginning to soften 
and wither ; but with that exception, the figure cor- 
rectly represents a rather luxuriant form of the 

(acumen \ the length 
undulate towards the 
or truncated. 

of the leaf) entire, or repandly 
apex : sinus at the base broad 

1965. PoGONOTROPHE MACROCARPA (Miqucl), ar- analysed. 

A common tree all over India, and so much re- 
spected by the natives that they will not willingly 
injure or cut it down, even to clear a line for a road, 
and I have known them rather work round one than 
cut it down. There are two nearly allied species 
with which it is liable to be confounded, but I beKeve 
the one represented is the genuine form. 

1968, HoLopTELEA iNTEGRiFOLiA (Plauch. Aunal. 
des Sciences, Nat. Ser. 3. v. 10, Ulmus integrifolia^ 

A considerable tree not uncommon along the foot 
of the Hills and pretty generally, though sparingly, 
distributed over the Coimbatore district. Leaves dis- 
tichous, entii'e, alternate, ovate, or cordato-ovate, ob- 
tuse, shining : flowers fascicled, appearing during the 
spring months when the tree is nearly destitute of 
leaves, male, female and hermaphrodite flowers, mix- 
ed in the same fascicles. Calyx 4-8-parted, hairy : 
stamens 7-9, scarcely longer than the calyx : ovary 
pedicelled, oval, compressed ; styles two, nearly as 
long as the ovary, fruit compressed, winged all round, 
seed ? 

The specimens represented are too young to show 
the mature fruit, to do justice to which would require 
a separate plate, neither were the available fruit suf- 
ficiently mature to admit of the seed being properly 

boreous, climbing ; ramull, petiols and under sm*face 
of the young leaves pubescent: leaves long petioled, 
ovate-equal, or somewhat unequal-sided, abruptly 
narrow acuminate, rounded at the base, 3-5-nerved, 
2-3, costulate, fugaciously puberulous above : recep- 
tacles glomerate, globose, pubescent, spotted. Fruit 
green, white spotted, size of an orange. 

Pulney Mountains, in woods climbing on other 
trees, in fruit during October. 

Miquel, when he referred this plant to his genus 
Pogonotrophe^ had not seen the drawing of the fruit, 
nor had he dissected it, whence I infer his reference 
of this plant to that genus is a mere guess. The 
drawing from which my plate is taken was made on 
the spot, but most unfortunately without an analysis 
of ihe contained flowers, whence I am unable to deter- 
mine with certainty its genus, but infer from its habit 
and general aspect that it is more properly referable 
to CovcUea than Pogonotrophe and, as such, seems 
very nearly allied to the following. 

1966. CovEtLiA GUTTATA (R. W,), arborcous, scan- 
dent, the branches afterwards ascending: branches 
glabrous and smooth, young ramuli pubescent : leaves 
ovate cordate, acuminate, 3-nerved, entire, smooth 
and glabrous above, villous beneath: receptacles glo- 
merate on the older branches, pubescent: perianth 
six-lobed, lobes lanceolate, equaling or exceeding the 
length of the ovary : stigma dilated, ciliate, umbilicate. 

Orange Valley near Kotcrgherry, Neilgherries, on 
the banks of the stream, flowering August and Sep- 
tember. In the receptacles, cut for examination, no 
male flowers were found, hence this appears a dioi- 
cous species. It seems very distinct from all those 
defined by Miquel. 

1967- Ubostigma keligiosum (GasparrinI, Miq.)» 
leaves long petioled, ovate cordate, narrow acuminate 

This tree has been removed from the old genus 
Ulmus^ by M. Planchon, principally on account of its 
polygamous flowers and deeply parted calyx, added 
to some differences in the structure of the seed. As 
yet it stands alone in the genus. The analyses of the 
ovary and fruit are less perfect than I could have 
wished, but in other respects the figures are good. 

1969. Celtis Wighth (Planchon, 1. c. p. 307), 

leaves oblong, abruptly acuminate, somewhat acute 
at the base, quite entire, 3-nerved ; lateral pair of 
nerves extending from the base to the apex : stipules 
produced below their point of insertion (that is, some- 
what peltate) : cymes polygamous (male and herma- 
phrodite), about the length of the petiols or some- 
times twice as long : berry ovate ; shortly rostrate, 

An extensively distributed small tree or large shrub ; 
frequent in the sub-alpine jungles covering the slopes 
of the hills, and on the Neilghen'ies asceiiding to au 
elevation of from 4000 to 6000 feet. 

bluish, flowering September and 
nearly throughout the year. 

riowers pale 

1970. Celtis sekotixa (Planch. 1. c. p. 301), leaves 
obliquely ovate, acuminate, acute at the base, serrated 
from the apex to below the middle, glabrous ; inflor- 
escence axillary or from the axils of fallen leaves : 
fructiferous pedicels usually 3 together, one free the 
other two united at the base: berry nearly oval, 

A considerable, and when in full leaf, a handsome 
ti'ee, flowering during the spring months while the 
young leaves are developing. It is extensively dis- 
tributed over the plateau of the Hills, but some of 
the finest specimens I have seen of it are growing 
on the bank in front of Stonehouse, The specific 

( 8 ) 

' x' 

name, which is in allusion to its not flowering until 
the leaves have attained their full growth, is not cor- 
rect as it flowers simultaneously with their develop- 
ment, and sometimes in anticipation of them. 

The difference of the leaves on flowering, as com- 
pared with the fruit branch, will show that such is 
the case. 

couraged to make the attempt in the hope that what- 
ever its imperfections, it may still prove useful to at 
least Indian Botanists until they are furnished with 

a more correct one. And I am not without the ex- 
pectation that it may lighten the labours of any Euro- 
pean Botanist who may be induced to take in hand 
the elaboration of the whole oi*der. 

1971- Sponia Wightii (Planchon, I.e. p. 322), 
arboreous, young branches petiois and nerves on the 
under surface of the leaves strigosely hairy : leaves 
ovate oblong, cuspidate, somewhat unequal-sided, 
acute or occasionally cordate and about equal-sided 
at the base; the younger ones silvery-silky white 
beneath, the adnlt ones adpressed, puberulous : cymes 
short peduncled, about as long as the petiois, the 
male ones compact, females looser, stigmas about 
as long as the immature fruit, clothed with long hair- 
like threads (longe filamentosis), the lower threads 
often resting on the apex of the berry. Planch, 

A small tree, not unfrequent throughout the south- 
ern provinces. I have long confounded this tree with 
Celtis orientalis^ Linn., Roxb., and others, from which, 
however, M. Planchon has separated it, limiting the 
Linnsean plant to Ceylon. Comparing, however, the 
character of the style and stigma of this with his 
character, there seems reason to believe, either that 
it is variable in that particular, or that there are still 
two species confused, or, what seems not improbable, 
that this is but a variety of the Ceylon plant, the 
two generally agreeing so well with the other. I 
make the remark in the hope of directing attention to 
the subject, as I can now scarcely hope to profit by 
it myself- The figure, so far as it goes, is good, 

1972. Laportea terminai.ts (R. W.), herbace- 
ous, dioicous, or rarely monoicous, erect, every where 
beset with long sharp stmging bristles : leaves al- 
ternate, long petioled, ovate acuminate, acutely mu- 
cronate, serrated, very rough above, smoother and 
glabrous except the bristles beneath : inflorescence 
panicled, male panicles in the lower axils, compact, 
about the length of the petiois ; flowers sub-sessile : 
calyx 5-parted: stamens 5, with a globose rudimen- 
tary ovary in the centre: female panicles two or 
three from the axils of the upper leaves, long pedun- 
cled, loose : floAvers pedicelled, pedicels at length 
winged : calyx 4-sepaled, the two lateral ones much 
larger, ovate obtuse : style longish ; stigma acute : 
achenium pedicelled, drooping, veutricose below, 
straight above, compressed, somewhat tubeixulate : 
seed compressed, exalbuminous : cotyledons foliace- 
ous, radicle next the apex of the seed. 

Xeilgherries, in thick woods, flowering October and 
November. Abundant on Elk Hill. I took advan- 
tage of an unusual specimen to show the relative 
positions and forms of the male and female panicles. 
It stings severely, and the tingling continues for a 
long time, but possesses very little of the intense 

virulence of Z. crenulata. 


At the present time this is a most difficult family 
to deal with, not that the species and genera are less 
distinguishable than those of other families, or because 
the distinguishing marks are less obvious, but because 
the old and verj'' complex genus, Urtica^ has been split 
into many genera, but as yet without any comprehen- 
sive revision and readjustment of the species. What 
is wanted is a monograph of the order by a compe- 
tent Botanist, having free access to the rich collec- 
tions of Europe, so that each, already, named species 
might be correctly referred to its new genus and 
defined with reference to its fellows. At present this 
can scarcely be done even with old and well known 
species, and much less so in the case of imperfectly 
known ones. Under these circumstances the follow- 
ing characters can, at best, be viewed as only provi- 
sional short descriptions of the plants, rather than 
specific characters, for, not having other defined spe- 
cies, appertaining to the same genera, with which to 
compare mine and thereby indicate their distinguish- 
ing marks, I can only note their prominent features, 
leaving the monographer to select from my descrip- 
tions those points necessary to distinguish them from 
others agreeing with them in their generic relations. 
My series of Indian species of the genus Pouzohia 
being more complete than those appertaining to the 
other genera, and having access to an imperfect mono- 
graph of the genus, I have ventured on the attempt of 
preparing a more perfect one. It must obviously be 
still very imperfect and may possibly be found to 
contain many errors, but as such contingencies are 
common to all fii'St attempts of the kind, I am en- however, from other quarters. 

( 9 ; 

1973. PujEA TRixERvu^ (R. W.), hcrbaccous, erect, 
every where glabrous, stems very succulent and 
juicy : leaves opposite, longish petioled, ovato-elliptic, 
3-nerved, acuminate, deeply and acutely mucronato- 
serrated ; smooth, shining, deep green above, paler 
and dull below ; nerves prominent : panicles axillary, 
loose, shorter than the leaves, monoicous : male 
flowers, calyx 4- parted; stamens 4: female, calyx 
3'lobed: 3 foliaceous abortive stamens: achenium 
ovate, erect, obtusCs compressed, smooth. Seed exal- 
buminous ; radicle pointing to the apex of the seed. 

Neilgherries, very abundant in damp woods, A 
very juicy, soft, tender plant, gi'owing most luxuri- 
antly in every wood about Ootacamund and in full 
flower during the rains. It is destitute of both pube- 
scence and bristles. This is not the Urtica trinervia 
of Roxburgh, which is, I believe, a Boehmeria^ neither 

is it confined to these hills, for I have specimens from 
other alpine stations. 

1974- PitEA RADicAxs (R. W.), hcrbaceous, pro- 
cumbent and rooting at the base, afterwards ascend- 
ing: leaves opposite, short petioled, cordato-ovate 
acute, deeply serrated, 3-nerved, glabrous and smooth 
on both sides, deep green, membranous : panicles 
from the axils of the upper leaves, dichotomous, long 
peduncled : male flowers 4-androus : female 3-Iobed 
with three abortive membranous stamens exceeding 

the lobes of the calyx : style none, achenium ovate, 
compressed, smooth. 

Neilgherries, in dark moist woods and with the 
preceding to be met with in almost every wood on 
the higher ranges of the Hills. I have specimens, 



1975. Fleurya interrupta (R, W., Urtica in^ 
terrupta^ var. laxiflora^ Lin., scarcely of Roxburgh). 

Herbaceous, erect, bristly all over, the young branches 
and under surface of the leaves, especially on the 
nerves, pubescent : leaves long petiolcd, cordato- ovate, 
acute or acuminate, coarsely serrate, somewhat tri- 
ple-nerved: peduncles axillary, solitary, about as long, 
or sometimes longer than the leaves, bearing at un- 
equal distances small lateral panicles : panicles either 
contracted and sub-capitate, or more fully developed 
and loose : male calyx 4-parted : stamens 4 : female 
4-cleft embracing the base of the ovary, afterwards 
open : style filiform ; stigma acute : achenium ovate 
compressed, winged round the margin, tuberculate 
on the disks, which in the dried seed are depressed* 

Paulghaut, &c. This plant is of frequent occur- 
rence all over the Peninsula and, if Roxburgh's plant, 
figui-ed No. 692, be the same, which I now begin to 
doubt, it extends far into Bengal. The form repre- 
sented, assuming it to be the same species as 692, is 
so very distinct in the character of its inflorescence 
as to entitle it to a place here, were it merely to show 
how much the development of organs may be modi- 
fied by circumstances. I consider the plant here re- 
presented as undoubtedly Linnaeus', differing in the 
development of the small lateral panicles, a point in 

which it also differs from the figm-es of both Rheede 
and Burmann, 

1976 cT 9 • GiRARDiNiA Leschenaultiana (De- 
caisne), leaves broad cordate, 7-lobed, lobes oblong, 
acute, coarsely serrated, serratures entire or dentate 
upwards, clothed on both sides with fine whitish 
down : above armed with thinly scattered prickles, 
beneath thickly beset with them : stipules lanceolate 
acute, scariose, brown. 

Frequent in the woods all over the higher range 
of the Hills, This is, I believe, the Urtica acerifoUa 
of Zenker. 

The bark yields a fine and strong flax, which the 
indigenous inhabitants obtain by first boiling the 
whole plant, to deprive it of its vifulently stinging 
properties, and then peeling the stalks. I am not 
acquainted with the after processes, but the textile 
material so obtained, when nicely prepared, is of 
great delicacy and strength. Until of late all the 
species of this genus, which certainly greatly resem- 
ble each other, were confounded under the name of 
Urtica heterophylla. I suspect it is now split into 

too many species. 

1977. Splitgerbera macrostachya (R. W.), suf- 
fruticose, erect, pilose all over : leaves long petioled, 
opposite, cordato-ovate, acute, 3-nerved, serrated; 
spikes axillary, filiform, interrupted, three or four 
times the length of the leaves : male fascicles 6-8- 
flowered; female 10-12 or more, male calyx 4-part- 
4^d, lobes 2-toothed; stamens 4, with a rudimentary 
ovary: female calyx tubular, ventricose, contracted, 
4-toothed at the apex, enclosing the ovary ; style 
long filiform ; stigma simple, acute, villous : seed oval, 
erect, enclosed within the calyx, exalbuminous, radicle 

Coimbatore district, Neilgherries, Courtallum, iScc, 
usually in moist soil seeking the shade and protection 
of bushes and trees. Of this genus I have several 
undescribed species from different parts of the Penin- 
sula and Ceylon. Roxburgh's Urtica scabrilla^ No. 
691 of this work, belongs to this genus. 

1978. PouzoLziA Bennettiana (R. W.), fruticosc, 
erect, sparingly branched ; stem and upper surface of 
the leaves somewhat rough : leaves usually ternate, 

uniform, short petioled, 3-nerved, ovato-lanceolate, 

slightly unequal-sided, rounded or subcordate at the 
base, taperingly acuminate, softly pubescent or sub- 
tomentose beneath, pilose above : flowers axillary, 
aggregated, male and female mixed : male pentan- 
di'ous, fruit ovate and ribbed in the loMcr axils, wing- 
ed towards the extremities of the older branches. 

Neilgherries, frequent among bushes in moist soil. 
When supported, 4 to 6 feet high. See monogi'aph 
at the end of the volume. 

1979-1. PouzoLziA ixTEGRiFOLiA (Dalzcl), Icavcs 
opposite, sessile, sub-cordate, broadest at the base, 
thence tapering to the point, sub-acuminate, united at 
the base by a broad stipule ; sparingly pilose on both 
sides, roughish above : flowers axlUaiy, sub-sessile ; 
males tctrandrous or rarely triandrous : fruit 2-3, 
winged: wings ciliate. 


Mountains of Malabar, flowering September. I 
am indebted to ]Mr. Dalzel for my specimens of this 


(R. W 

ramous, erect or seeking the support of bushes : leaves 
sub-sessile, opposite, many-nerved, pubescent on both 
sides: male inflorescence cymose,- cymes axillary, 
paii'ed : flowers pentandrous : fi'uit axillary, sessile, 

one or two between the male peduncles, ovate, ribbed, 

Eastern slopes of the Xeilgherries, flowering during 
the autumnal months ; usually among bushes whose 
support it seeks, and then attains to the height of 3 
or 4 feet. 

1980-1. PouzoLziA Indica (R. W-, Parietaria In- 

dica ? Lin.), ascending, lax ; leaves triple-nerved, al- 
ternate, short petioled, uniform, but reduced in size 
towards the ends of the branches, ovato-lanceolate 

sub -acuminate, pilose: flowers few, axillary, glome- 
rate, tetaudrous; fruit ovate, 8-ribbed, apiculate. 

Tlie figure and character of this plant is taken from 
an indifferent specimen gathered in China by Mr. 
Dorward of the Madras Medical Establishment, As 

it agrees pretty well with Rumpheus' figure, vol- 6, 
tab. 12, f. 2, 1 have been induced to consider it iden- 
tical witrt the LinniCan species. 

1980-2. Pouzolzia auric clata (R. W.), erect, 
ramous, branches terete, hoary towards the extremi- 
ties : leaves triple- nerved, alternate, longish petioled, 
lanceolate, acute at both ends ; roughish above, pube- 
scent beneath: flow^ers sessile, glomerate, pentan- 
di'ous : fruit 4-winged ; wings enlarging from the base 
upwards, sub-orbicular, auricle-like. 

Neilgherries, lyamallay Hills, near Coimbatore, 
flowering August and September, 

1980-3. PouzoMiA BosTEATA (R. W.), erect, ra- 
mous ; stems glabrous : leaves longish petioled, triple- 
nerved, alternate, membranous, glabrous on both 
sides ; flowers glomerate, sessile, pentandrous : fruit 
4-winged, ending in a prominent hairy beak. Winf::s 
rather small and coriaceous. 

Malabar, a very distinct species. 

( 10 ) 

Chamabainia (R. AV.) 

Gen. Char. Mon^cious. Male calyx 4-cIeft, 
lobes all equal.^ Stamens 4, iuflexed ia aestivation, 
rudimentary ovary clavate. Female: two or tliree 
sessile flowers aggregated on the axil or within a 
bract. Sepals two, minute. Style very short \ stigma 
somewhat capitate, penicillate. A achenium ovate, 
A low, herbaceous, rauious, diffuse, creeping plant, 
rooting at the joints, branches ascending : stipules 4 
large scariose at each joint : leaves opposite, petioled, 
ovate, acute, serrated, 3-nerved, pilose on both sides : 
flowers axillary, fascicled ; males and females mixed: 
males pedicellcd, calyx deeply 4-cleft, lobes furnished 
at the apex with a bristly tooth-like appendage : sta- 
mens nearly twice the length of the calyx : rudimen- 
tary pistil clavate : female flo^vers in the same axils 
nuraei'ous, sessile, very minute, compactly aggregated 
in fiiscicles of two or more flowers embraced by a 
broad ovate, delicately membranous bract. 

This part of the structure is not shown in the ac- 
companying analyses where at: fig. 5, a single flower 
is shown in place of several to the bract. In other 
respects the analyses are generall}'' correct, with the 
exception of the short style and stigma, which is im- 
perfectly represented. The genus is named with re- 
ference to its procumbent rooting habit — earthloving. 

cuspicata (R. W.), Neil- 

and in low wet ground near 

1981. Chamabainia 
ghcrries, in moist woods 
streams, &c. 

1982. Forskolia ubticoides (R- W.), procum- 
bent, ramous, rooting below, branches ascending, slen- 
der, diffuse : leaves opposite, petioled, ovate or sub- 
cordate, serrated, pilose on both sides, but especially 
on the nerves beneath : involucres axillary, campan- 
ulate, 5 -toothed, 4-flowered, 3 pedicelled male, and 
1 sessile female: male calyx 2-lobed with 1 sta- 
men, female tubular, enclosing the ovary, 5-toothed : 
style long, stigma villous, pointed : achenium ovate, 

Neilgherries, in damp shady woods about Ootaca- 
mund. ^ 

This, I believe, is the only Indian species yet dis- 
covered of this genus. F. tenacessima is found in 

Scinde, for specimens of which I am indebted to the 
kindness of Dr. Stocks. 

1983. Elatostema cuspidata (R. W.), dioicous, 

herbaceous, erect, sparingly branched : leaves sub- 
sessile, alternate, very unequal-sided, cuspidately 
acuminate, coarsely serrated ; sprinkled with a few 
bristly hairs and closely lineolate above, pubescent 
on the nerves beneath : receptacles axillary, sessile, 
oval, peltate; furnished on the margin with some 
tooth-like appendages : some males, mixed with the 
female flowers, longer pedicelled ; ovary ovate, base 
embraced by the 3-lobed calyx: style none, stigma 
pennicillate : seed ovate pericarp papery, splitting 
into two halves when pressed : embryo exalburai- 
nous, radicle superior. (In figs. 5 and 7, of the plate, 
the artist has accidentally inverted the seed, repre- 
senting the embryo pointing to the base.) 

Neilgherries, in thick woods on the banks of 
streams and other moist ground. 

In this plate the female plant only is represented ; 
the male flowers shown, being imperfect ones, found 
mixed in the female receptacles. In the male plant 
the leaves are somewhat narrower, and not so deeply 

1984. Elatostema lineolata (R. W.), dioi- 
cous, herbaceous or suffrnticose, erect, ramous, glab- 
rous: leaves sessile, alternate, unequal-sided, abruptly 
acuminate, with a few serratures on the convex edge, 
coriaceous; glabrous on both sides: marked above 
with numerous thick white lineols : pellucid dotted : 
male : receptacles deeply 2-lobed, membranous : flow- 
ers numerous, each at first embraced by a mem- 
branous involucre, afterwards by the elongation of 
the pedicel, exserted; calyx 4-parted: stamens 4, 
involute in iestivation. 

Neilgherries, Malabar, Canara, Ceylon, &c. 

Though I have specimens from all the above sta- 
tions, they are all males. The drawing was made 
nearly 10 yeai's ago at Ootacamund and had I then 
had leisure to study the order, would doubtless have, 
before this time, found the female plant, but not 
having had that leisure, I all along supposed the 

drawing complete and did not discover its imperfec- 
tion until the impression had been struck off. I hope 
to be able to remedy the imperfections of this and 
its two fellows in a subsequent plate. The three 
drawings were all made about the same time, and all 

similarly imperfect as representing only one sex. 

1985. Elatostema ovata (R. AV.), herbaceous, 
dioicous or polygamous, erect ; sparingly branched : 
leaves opposite, unequal-sized, ovate, acute, serrated, 
short petioled, pubescent, and sprinkled with stronger 
bristles above ; glabrous, except on the veins, be- 
neath ; 3-nerved, the lateral pair very slender: recep- 
tacles axillary, pedicelled, fleshy : fructiferous flowers 
short pedicelled (mixed with numereous longer pedi- 
celled imperfect ones), calyx 4-cleft ; imperfect ones, 
calyx 4-parted ; lobes cuspidate: male plant like the 
female, but larger, receptacles like those of the female 
except the total absence of female flowers. 

Neilgherries, in wet soil, frequent in the woods about 
Ootacamund. Plant from 6 to 8 inches high, leaves 
from 1 to 1 J inch long, the larger ones about an inch 
broad, peduncles from i^ to 1 inch long, slender. 

Tliis and Elatostema oppositifolia^ Dalzell (Hook- 
er's Jour. 3, p. 179), are referable to the same section 
of the genus, but seem very distinct plants. They 
differ so much in habit from the preceding species 
that I almost doubt whether, on a complete revision 
of the order, they will be permitted to remain in the 
same genus. The male flowers of E, Uneolata^ with 
their conspicuous involucell and membranous invo- 
lucre seem very distinct. I, however, with my pre- 
sent imperfect information cannot venture on any 

1986. AsriBOPTEKis GLo^rKRATA (R.W.), shrubby, 
climbing, glabrous : leaves coriaceous, short petioled, 
broad elliptic, sub-acute at both ends, slightly un- 
equal-sided, faintly triple-nerved, quite entire : flow- 
ers glomerate, axillary or on the ends of rudimentary 

brandies ; glomerules short, clothed with tawny pube- 
scence: pedicels slender, about the length of the pe- 
tiols : calyx lobes oval, obtuse, sparingly ciliate, about 
i the length of the linear sub-obovate obtuse, petals : 
petals slightly pubescent within, about the length of 
the stamens. 

Courtallum, Malabar, Mysore. 

This species seems nearly allied to Mr. Dalzell's 
A. canarensis if indeed it be not a form of that veiy 
plant, but as it is said to have the flowers in simple 
racemes, and as I have specimens of this plant from 

( 11 ) 


£0 many localities all agreeing, I cannot venture, until 
better informed, or until I have compared specimens, 
to unite them. I have not seen fruit of this species. 

1987-88. Ancistrocladus Heyneanus (Wall.)i 

shrubby, climbing : leaves sessile, oblong, obovato-lan- 
ceolate, cuniate towards the base, coriaceous, quite 
glabrous ; when dry delicately reticulate above : pani- 
cles towards the ends of the hook-bearing branches, 
dichotomous : calyx and corolla about equal : stamens 
10, alternately long and short, filaments of all dilated 
at the base : style thick, conical ; stigmas three : fruit 
5 -winged, two smaller, one-seeded : seed corrugated, 
globose, somewhat depressed above. 

Courtallum, and Malabar forests. I am indebted to 
the kindness of the Rev. Mr. Johnson of Cottayam 
for the specimens from which the drawing was made. 
This, I suppose, is Wallich's A, Heyneamts^ a still un- 

described plant which I have never seen, if this be 
not it. This seems nearly allied to A, Vahlii^ but 
which is said to be pentandrous. In other respects 
the characters are very much alike. 

1989, Urostigma Bengalense (Gaspar, Miquel, 
Ficus Bengalensis^ Linn.), " leaves ovate, quite entire, 
obtuse," Lin,, "stem rooting below," Lin., Ficus 
Jndicaj Roxb. "Branches dropping roots, which be- 
come as long as the original trunk : leaves ovate, 
cordate : fruit in sessile axillary pairs." Roxb. 

Common all over India, often used as a road-side 
tree, generally to be met with about every town and 

Of this very celebrated tree no good modern figure 
exists, a hiatus I was anxious to fill, but having re- 
stricted the artist in the matter of room, the result 
has been less satisfactory than I could have wished, 
the plate being much too crowded. Except, however, 
in respect to appearance, the representation is correct 
and had it been coloured or the fruit shaded, even 
that defect would have been, to some extent, obviated. 
The mature fruit and the leaves are dark green. To 
see it properly, the plate requires to be viewed from 
the side, and ought to have had the name so written. 

The specific name of this tree has long been sub- 
ject of discussion; the question on the principle of 
priority is now set at rest. The above brief charac- 
ter taken from Linnaeus, Sp, Plant., added to the 
figure quoted from the Hortus Malabaricus, leave no 
doubt of this being his Ficus Bengalensis^ though I 

believe not the plant he intended. 

It is certainly much to be regretted that he fell 
into the mistake, but such cannot now be easily got 
over, and therefore, must be submitted to with what 
grace we may. I certainly wish that Miquel, now 
the highest authority on this genus, had taken upon 
himself to add the weight of his authority to the 
wishes of Indian Botanists to correct the error which 
they all feel to have been inadvertent. But siuce 
he, in justice to the original founder of the name, 
has deemed it right to retain the original provincial 
one, to the exclusion of the more appropriate country 
one, others I fear must do the same. Under this 
view I have felt it incumbent on me, much against 
my inclination, to follow his example. 

1990. Sponia vELUTiNA (Plauch.), branchlets and 
leaves softly velvety ; the clothing on the very young 
parts shining; leaves ovate oblong, cuspidately acu- 

minate, slightly unequal at the base, cordate or 
rounded, serrated on the margin, above beset with 
rough points : cymes (male, female and polygamous), 
short pedunclcd or sub -sessile, equaling or twice as 
long as the petiols, many-flowered: male flowers 
exteriorly hairy ; berries ovate, glabrous or some- 
times sprinkled with a few hairs. 

Coimbatore, Neilgherries, 8cc. This is a widely 
distributed tree. India generally, Madagascar, Bur- 
niah, China,' &c. 

1991. Antidesma acumi>\\ta (Wall. ? H.B. Cal.), 
shrubby or arboreous : leaves ovate oblong, acumi- 
nate, glabrous ; stipules linear acute, sometimes sub- 
falcate, unequal- sided: racemes axillary or terminal, 
sometimes branched: bracts ovate acute: flowers 
short pedicelled, crowded, male and hermaphrodite : 
males 3-4-androus with a free capitate rudimentary 
style, calyx deeply 3 -parted setacio-dentate on the 
margin, stamens longer than the calyx : hermaphro- 
dite, calyx 3 or 4 parted : stamens 3-4, about the 
length of the calyx, anthers 2-celIed with a broad 
connective; ovary exceeding the calyx, 1 -celled, 
ovules 2, collateral, pendulous from the apex, stigma 

Calcutta Botanic Garden, Malabar. 

The figure is taken from a specimen, named as 
above, received from the Calcutta Botanic Garden, 
and I have since received others from Malabar. But 
for the latter I should scarcely have thought of intro- 
ducing this plant. And had I, before naming the 
drawing, seen M. Tulasne's monograph of the order, 
I should perhaps have deemed myself justified in 
assigning a new generic appellation, on the ground of 
the fertile flowers being furnished with what appears 
perfect stamens. As, however, I have not seen the 
fruit, X refrain from now doing so, as the character 
must to that extent be imperfect, and I hope yet to 
have the deficiency supplied. In the mean time, as 
it certainly belongs to the order, it may be permitted 
to remain as a doubtful number of the genus. 


Gen. Cuar. Dioecious. Male; calyx 4-parted, im- 
bricated in eestivation, lobes all equal. Stamens 5 to 
8 inserted round a flat disk, lining the bottom of the 
calyx ; authei'S oblong, 2-celled, cells collateral : rudi- 
mentary ovary various, sometimes altogether wanting, 
sometimes very minute, and, in one flower I examin- 
ed, fertile, that flower being perfectly hermaphrodite. 
Female ; calyx 4-parted, lined with a disk, no rudi- 
mentary stamens : ovary free, one-celled ; ovules two, 
pendulous from the apex of the cell: style none: 
stigma large, spreading, covering the wiiole of the 
apex of the ovary. Fruit ? A small very ra- 

mous tree, the extreme branches slender, gracefully 
drooping on all sides. Leaves alternate, oblong, ellip- 
tico-lanceolate, acuminate, waved on the margin, en- 
tire, glabrous. Fowers axillaiy ; males fascicled, short 
pedicelled; fascicles 4-8-flowered; the two exterior 
lobes of the calyx bi'oad ovate somewhat boat-shaped, 
at first quite concealing the interior pair, all densely 
pubescent exteriorly, slightly downy >yithin : stamens 
very variable iu number, 5, 6, 7, 8 in different flow- 
ers picked from the same branch. Female flowers 
usually in pairs, pedicles about the length of the 
petiols, like the males except in difference of sex ; of 
thoee examined none furnished rudimentary stamens. 

( 12 ; 

This genus is, it appears to me, justly referable to 
AntidesmecE^ though, so long as the mature fruit re- 
mains unkuown, a doubt must exist ou that point. 
The difference of the anthers tends to strengthen that 
doubt, but those of the hermaphrodite flowers of the 
preceding plate help to reconcile us to the difference. 

In the analysis the draftsman has been careless 
and has failed to show the disk of the male flower. 
It is similar to that shown in the female one. 

1992. ASTYLIS VEXUSTA. (R. "\V",) 


Xcilgherries, western slopes, growing near 
banks of streams, flowering May and June, On the 
banks of the stream at ilr. Ouchterlony's coffee 

1993. Euphorbia Cattimandoo (W. Elliot), 
shrubby or arboreous, erect, 5-sided with prominent 
repand angles ; stipulary thorns paired, short subu- 
late : leaves sessile, succulent, deciduous, obovate, sub- 
cuniate, cuspidate, glabrous : peduncles crowded, 3- 
flowered, the middle one usually sterile and the lateral 
ones fertile, sometimes the reverse, flowering after the 
fall of the leaf. 

Vizagapatam district, in great abundance, flowering 
from March to May, or even the beginning of June. 

This plant is so much like Euphorbia trigona^ No, 

1863, above, that I should scarcely have thouglit of 
introducing it here, but for the valuable product 
which it yields to the arts, and which, when better 
known, may be found but little inferior, for many 
purposes, to Gutta Percha. The drawing represents 
the plant in 3 states: 1st, quite naked as it appears 
before flowering ; second, covered with flowers, and 
lastly as it appears in July and August covered 
with young leaves. In size it varies from 8 to 12 
or 14 feet, rarely higher. The stem is 3-4 feet high 
surmounted by a round branchy head. The milk 
of this plant yields the product above referred to. 
It is obtained by cutting off the branches, when it 
flows freely. " It is collected and boiled on the spot, 
at which time it is very elastic, but after being formed 
into cakes or cylinders it becomes resinous or brittle, 
in which state it is sold in the bazaars and employed 
as a cement for fixing knives into handles and other 
similar purposes, which is effected by heating it. It 
is also employed medicinally, as an outward appli- 
cation iu cases of Rheumatism. The piece I sent you 
was prepared by Mr. Healy, and was, I think, boiled 
iu water. It is much superior to what is sold in the 
bazaar, but it has not the valuable property, like 
Gutta Percha, of being ductile at all tunes. It can 
be made to take any shape when first boiled, but as 
far as we know, not afterwards, though some plan 
may be found for making it more pliant afterwards." 

The above notes were communicated by Mr. Walter 
Elliot. Judging from the above mentioned sample of 
the Cattimandoo, now before me, I should suppose 
that, were it in the hands of men accustomed to work 
iu such material, itVould soon be turned to valuable 
account. I find, when exposed to the heat of a fire 
or lamp it rapidly softens and becomes as adhesive 
to the hands as shoemakers' wax* but wiien soaked 

for some time in warm water (150** to 180**) then it 
slowly softens, becomes pliable and plastic and in 
that state takes any required form. But my experi- 
ments with it have been too few and cursory to 
admit of my drawing any conclusions from them, and 

I only mention them because they seem to encourage 
the hope that the concluding remarks of Jlr. Elliot 
still want confirmation. 

Chorisandra, (R. W.) 

Gen. Chae, Dioecious (always ?), Male : calyx 
six-parted with six depressed flattened glands. Sta- 
mens six, equal, free to near the base, alternate with 
the glands ; filaments filiform subulate ; anthers short, 
ovate, 2-celled; cells parallel opening longitudinally. 
Female : calyx 5-parted (always), lobes somewhat 
unequal : glands 5, alternate with the lobes of the 
calyx. Ovary 3-celled with 2 ovules suspended from 

about the middle of the axis iu each ; style short, 3- 
cleft, stigmas revolute. Capsule 3-celIed, usually, by 
abortion, 3-seeded, splitting into six valves. Seed 
globose, — A low ramous shrub, 3-5 feet high. Leaves 
alternate, pinnate ; leaflets alternate, oval, obtuse at 
both ends, glabrous. Male flowers axillary, aggregat- 
ed in dense fascicles : calyx lobes imbricating in aesti- 
vation, reflcxed wlicn full blown : glands depressed, 
covering the bottom of the calyx and concealing the 

insertion of the stamens ; flower buds globose. Fe- 
male flowers few, one or two from the base of the 
pctiols, long pedicelled. Capsule globose croT;\Tied 

with the persistent style ; glabrous. The distinguish- 
ing feature of this genus is the number and freedom 
of the stamens; and the inflorescence is peculiar 
when viewed iu connection with that of the sub-divi- 
sion of the tribe (Fhyllanthece)^ to which it belongs. 
In truth it seems almost a Phyllanthus in habit. 

1994, Chorisaxdra pinnata. (R.W.) 

Abundant in arid laterite soils along the western 
shores of the Pulicat lake, where it forms extensive 
low jungles (within about 20 or 25 miles in a north- 
west direction from Madras). It is also found in the 
Northern Circars whence I received specimens from 
Mr. Walter Elliot, Being thus extensively distrib- 
uted I M^onder that it still remains an undescribed 
plant, but yet I do not recognise it under any of 
either Willdenow's or Roxburgh's species, of either 

Phyllanthus^ to which genus I think they would most 
probably have referred it, or in any other allied genus. 
As a gemis, I feel certain it is not taken up. 

AVagatea. (Dalzell, Hooker's K- G. MisceL vol. 

3, p. 90.) 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-cleft, tube cup-shaped, limb 
deciduous, lobes imbricated in aestivation, the inferior 
one somewhat larger, concave. Corolla; petals 5, 
equal, uniform, unguiculate, inserted on the top of the 
tube of the calyx. Stamens 10, inserted with the 
petals, all fertile, alternately shorter. Ovary stipi- 
tate, 4-6-ovuled; style filiform; stigma hollow, 2- 
liped, fringed, upper lip half-orbicular, lower one 

larger, cucullate. Legume linear acute, coriaceous, 
transversely constricted between the seed, thickened 
on the margin, seed 3-4, obovate oblong, testa thick, 
hard and bony, — A scandent shrub everywhere, except 
the spikes, armed with recurved prickles. Leaves 

bipinnate ; pinnae 5-6 pairs; leaflets 5-6 pairs, sub - 
cordato-ovate obtuse or sub*emarginate, shining above, 
a little downy. Spikes terminal, long (1-2 feet) ; 
flowers numerous, close set, calyx bright red; petals 
orange yellow, and, being confined by the calyx lobes, 
never expand : stamens length of the petals, filaments 
hairy at the base, anthers roundish, ovary pilose; 
legume glabrous, thick aftd somewhat spongy. 


( 13 ) 

This genus, of which Roxburgh's CcBsalp. oleosperma 

seems a second species, is nearly allied to my genus 

Acrocarpus (Icon. 254), and by its affinity confirms 
the view taken of the relationships of that genus. 

1995. Wagatea spicata (Dalzell, C^salpinia 
digina? Law in Graham's catal., C. spicata, Dal. 1. c. 

Paulghaut jungles, Bclgaum, Malabar mountains- 
Many years ago I received specimens, but without 
fruit, of this plant from Mr, Law, forwarded from 
Belgaum. Last year I received one from some hill 
jungles near Paulghaut, but still without fruit. Sub- 
sequently I recognised, in Mr. Dalzell's graphic char- 
acter, my old friend, and on application to him was 
immediately furnished with a legume to enable me to 
complete my drawing, which I have now had by me 
for at least 12 or 14 years. 

Macclellandia. (R. W.) 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulate, 6-cleft, Corolla 
6 petals ; petals inserted on the margin of the calyx 
between the lobes, uuguiculate. Stamens 12, inserted 
on the bottom of the tube of the calyx, alternately 
shorter, the longer ones alternate with the petals. 
Ovary free, stipitate, concealed within the tube of the 
calyx, one-celled; ovules numerous attached to a 
free central placenta : style filiform, at first incluse, 
afterwards,' through the enlargement of the ovary, ex- 
serted ; stigma umbilicate. Pixis globose, scarcely 
exserted. Seed very numerous, irregularly angled, 
cuniate ; testa thick, soft and spongy : embryo exal- 
buminous, radicle pointing to the hilum. — A rather 
large, very ramous shrub, growing on the sea shore 
almost within high water mark. Leaves short petiol- 
ed, opposite, oval or somewhat obovate obtuse, softly 
pubescent on both sides, very succulent (sometimes 
fully quarter of an inch thick). Flowers pedicelled, 
axillary, solitary, moderate sized, varying from nearly 
white to deep pink: calyx conical, tube externally 
hairy, lobes triangular acute : petals ovate or sub- 
orbicular, corrugately plaited on the margin, deci- 

I have dedicated this genus to Mr. John McClel- 
land of the Bengal Medical Service ; Editor of the 
Posthumous works of that transcendent Botanist, 
William Griffith. Though not himself a Botanist, 
I think the Science owes him a large debt of grati- 
tude, for his disinterested labours, which I here en- 
deavour, in part, to pay, by dedicating a genus to 
him and associating with his name that of his justly 
lamented friend. 

Macclellandia Gkiffithtana. (R. W.) 

Islands off Tuticoreen, close on the sea beach 
flowering and also bearing ripe fruit in February — 
and, judging from the appearance of the trees, ap- 
parently in flower at all seasons. In this, in many 
respects unique plant, I have availed myself of the 
opportunity of uniting the names of two, so long as 

of the involucrum (apparent sepals), pedicels, 
young shoots minutely stellato-puberulous. 

Ceylon in woods, in the vicinity of Pousloway 
Rombady, flowering ISIarch and April. 



tioled, oval, obtuse at both ends, coriaceous, glabrous, 
when dry slightly revolute on the margin : peduncles 
axillary, 1- or few-flowered, exceeding the petiols: 
fruit pedicelled, ovate, slightly compressed, glabrous, 
Adam's Peak, flowering in March. Gardner, com-' 
municated by Mr. Thwaites. This differs from the 
preceding in the inflorescence and form of the leaves. 

1998-2. HoRTONTA ACUMINATA (R. W.), arbo- 
reous : leaves petioled, ovato-lanccolate, acuminate, 
entire, glabrous : peduncles axillary, exceeding the 
petiols, few-flowered. 

Ceylon, Colonel Walker. This, as I'egards foliage, 
gi'catly resembles H. fiorihunda^ but the inflores- 
cence and flowers, so far as my solitary specimen 
enables me to judge, is very diflTerent. 

1999. Calysaccion LONGiFOLirM (R. W., 111. Ind. 
Bot. L 130), arboreous, monoicous or dioicous : 
young shoots obsoletely 4-sided : leaves opposite, 
short petioled, linear lanceolate, obtuse, coriaceous, 
costate, but without lateral parallel veins : flowers 
numerous, fascicled on axillary tubercles: fascicles 
dense, many-flowered, flowers short pedicelled. 

Malabar, indigenous; Bangalore, introduced; Xor- 
thern Circars, possibly also introduced — and in that 
climate monoicous or becoming hermaphrodite. 

The plants I saw at Bangalore were all covered 
with fruit, hence I presume, like those from the Cir- 
cars, and others I heard of introduced, I think, in 
Combaconum, becoming, under the modifying cir- 
cumstances of change of climate, bisexual. Those 
from which the original character was taken and 
those now figured were from the Malabar Coast, and 
in both instances dioicous. 

"A large tree, leaves opposite, oblong; flowers in 

March and April in clusters on the thick branches be- 
low the leaves; small, white, streaked "svith red, dia^ci- 
ous. The male tree is called Woondy^ the female 
Pooiiay^ both are also known by the name of Suringel 
or Gardeoondy .^"^ llab. "Parell and AVoorlee Hills, 
Bombay, Kenneiy jungles in considerable abun- 
dance. On the Ghauts and throughout the Concans. 
The flowers are collected and exported to Bengal foi" 
dying silk." Graham's catal. Bombay Plants, p. 73. 

2000. Centunc0lus tenellus (Duby in D. -C. 
Prod. V. 8, p. 72), small erect, branched from the base 
or simple, branches erect : leaves broad ovate, acuti:?h, 
entire, subsessile, or narrowing into a petiol : flow- 
ers axillary, peduncles shorter than the leaves : seg- 
ments of the calyx linear lanceolate, subulately acumi- 
nate, as long as the corolla : corolla deciduous, pitcher- 
shaped at the base : capsule as long as the calyx. 

both lived, inseparable friends, and trust they may Neilgherrles, Rev. Dr. Schmid. 

ever remain so associated, by its proving a really 
hitherto unknown plant and, up to the publication 
of this sheet, an undefined genus and species. 

1997. HoETONiA FLORiBUNDA (R. W.), arborcous, 
leaves opposite, exstipulate, petioled, oblong lanceo- 
late, acuminate, entire, pennincrved : cymes pedun- 
cled, axillary, longer than the petiols : exterior leaves 

I am indebted to the Rev. Dr. Schmid for the spe- 
cimens of this very rare plant from which the di'aw- 
ings were made. He found them, I think, on the 
grassy steep slopes behind Dawson's Hotel, along with 
some most minute forms (probably a new species) of 
Iledyotis. I am also indebted to the same acute 

observer for specimens of an Erodium, apparently 
new, but on that point the specimens are scarcely 

( 14 ) 

sufficiently perfect to enable me to decide. This spe- 
cies of Centunculus was originally found in Nepaul, 
its rediscovery on the Neilgherries adds another to 
the many already existing links which connect these 
distant floras. 

2000, Primula dej^ticulata ? (Smith, Ex. Bot.), 
leaves rugous, thin, glabrous, ovato-lanceolate, un- 
equally denticulate, acutish, smooth above, beneath 
more or less dusted with white farina, sometimes 
without farina, narrowed into a winged petiol, sheath- 
ing and membranous at the base : involucrum many- 
flowered, leaflets acuminate, the exterior ones broader 
lanceolate longer than the pedicels, the interior ones 
linear lanceolate, shorter : calyx urseolate, 5-cleft, 
divisions linear lanceolate acute, longer than the 
tube : corolla salver-shaped, lobes obcordate, obtuse. 
Duby iaD.C.Prod. 

The specimens from which the draAving was made 
were kindly communicated by Captain Munro who 
gathered them at Hungarung on the Himalayas in 
August. I am doubtful whether I have correctly 
named the plant as the specimens differ in some 
minute particulars from tlie character, but as they 
agree in their more prominent features, I could not 
venture on constituting this a new species, the more 
so as I have not an opportunity of consulting Smith's 
figure. Should it prove new, 1 would suggest its 
being dedicated to the discoverer. It is introduced 
here mainly to fill the plate, but also in the hope that, 
since Centunculus has been found on our southern 

mountains, a Primula may be found to bear it com- 

• SciTAMINE^. 

This is the Linnean name of a curious, beautiful and 
useful group of plants, including the Plantain, Car- 
damom, Ginger, Turmeric, Zedoary, Arrowroot, In- 
dian shot (canna), and many others. The original 
group, which now includes about 300 known species, 
is divided into three orders — Musacece^ Zingiberacem^ 
and Marantacece, The first is distinguished by hav- 
ing several stamens — the second by having one sta- 
men with a perfect 2-celled anther, and the 3d by 
having 1 stamen with a 1-celled or half anther, and 
that placed at one side of the flower, usually on a 
petaloid filament. 

Illustrations of each of these orders will be found 
among the following series of plates. The group, 
viewed as a whole, is readily distinguished by its 
foliage and habit. Erect herbaceous stalks with 
sheathing more or less lanceolate leaves, having a 
distinct mid rib with the lateral veins diverging 
thence at more or less acute angles towards the mar- 
gin. In most other monocotyledonous plants (some 
exceptions will be mentioned by and by) they run 
in parallel lines from the base to the apex. 

At first sight the flowers of Zingiberacers seem, as 
in orchids, to consist of a slx-lobed perianth, 3 ex- 
terior and 3 interior, one of the latter more or less 
differing from the others, forming, as in orchids, a lip 

opposite the stamen. This is not, however, their true 
structure, for they have in addition to this coroloid 
perianth, a distinct calyx, (usually much shorter and 
embracing its tubular base) wtich is wanting in 
orchids. The difference is explained by assuming 
that in this group there are six stamens, 5 of which 
are modified, and only three in orchids, two of which 
are modified or wanting. That such is really the 

perianth and six stamens one only of the latter im- 
perfect. In it, the 3 larger exterior lobes of the 
perianth correspond to the calyx of the Gingers, the 
3 smaller interior to the exterior lobes of the per- 
ianth, while the 3 outer stamens represent the inner 
perianth and the 3 inner the staminal series of Gin- 
gers. According to this view, the flower of Zingiber 
race(B consists, 1st of the calyx, 2d of the exterior or 
calycine lobes of the perianth, 3d, of the interior, or 
petaloid lobes, modified stamens^ and 4th, of the pro* 
per stamens, two of which are alDortive, and the third, 
or odd one, placed opposite the lip, perfect. Maraw 
tacem differ from this arrangement in perfecting one 

of the lateral stamens in place of the odd or pos- 
terior one. 

In the discrimination of the genera of Zwgi^ 
be7'acecB the anther is usually looked to as furnish* 
ing the essential characters, but of course the other 
parts of the flower are not overlooked. The first 
point to be noticed in examining one of these plants 
is to ascertain whether or not the filament extends 
beyond the anther. If it has not a crest or prolon- 
gation it is referable to Hedychium^ Alpinia^ Globba^ 
Itoscoea or Gastrochilus^ all of which have crestless 
anthers, but are easily distinguished by other marks. 
The lateral appendages of the anthers of some of the 
Globbas do not come under that denomination. 

Of those that have it prolonged. Zingiber has an 
awl-shaped point. Elatteria^ a short more or less 
fleshy thickening of the point. Costus^ a short mem- 
branous prolongation. Curcuma^ a dilated point and 
two spurs at the base. Keempferia^ a long membra- 
nous forked point. Monolophus^ a short broad re- 
flexed point, Roscoea has the base of the anther 
prolonged. . 

These brief indications of the essential characters 
of the genera, so far as they are derived from the 
aather, will suffice to show that it is not generally 
difficult to distinguish the genera of this order with 
fresh plants in hand ; and that, even with dried spe* 
cimens if the flowers are not much injured in the 
drying, but a moderate degree of skill is required to 
open, for examination, flowers previously softened by 
immersion for a few minutes in hot water. 

The genera of Marantacem are easily known by 

their habit. 

As it is probable my figures will generally be ex- 
amined in comparison with fresh plants Tvith which 
in minute particulars they may not at all times be 
found to correspond, it is proper to mention that sev- 
eral of them are taken from dried specimens, and 
that in such cases minute accuracy of outline is not 
always attainable, even while the likeness is so well 
preserved as to leave no doubt as to the identity of 
the object represented. This remark is more espe- 
cially applicable to the magnified dissected flowers 
which, it must be allowed, it is often difficult so far 
to restore as to admit of the representation conveying 
a correct idea of the aspect of the parts, as seen in 
the growing plant, but I trust that are generally so 
well done as to leave no doubt of the species to 
which they refer and which they are intended to 
make known. 

200L Globba marantinoibes (R. W., O. marmi' 
tina^ R. W. Icon., nou Willd.), leaves petioled, lance- 
olate : spike terminal, distichous, lower bracts bulbife- 
rous ; upper floriferous : flowers 2-4 in each bract : 

m — _ - _ - ^J _ - -_ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

case is shown by the Plantain which has a six-parted lip entire, truncated at the apex, reflexed. 

( 15 ) 


Anamallay, in dense alpine forest, very abundant, 
flowering in August and September, 

When naming this plant, rather hurriedly, I fear, 
I at once referred it to Marantina^ not duly bearing 
in mind its petioled leaves, its several- not on^-flow- 
ered bracts, and its undivided lip — to which I might 
have added geographical position, the true G. Maran- 
tina being an Eastern species, from the Moluccas, 
while this is from the interior of Continental India. 
It is certainly, judging from description only, very 
like the other, and may possibly be the G, bulbifera^ 
Eoxb., but of it, the description is so imperfect that 
I am unable to identify the two plants, and therefore 
think it better to keep them distinct. 

^ Considering the importance attached to modifica- 
tions of the anther in this family, this seems, with its 
congeners, well entitled to form the type of a genus. 
As compared with the following, a true Glohba^ these 
differences are most conspicuous ; and, added to the 
habit observed in all three, of forming tubers in place 
of flowers in the lower bracts of the spike afford 
strong grounds for separation. At a very early stage 
of Roxburgh's career he seems to have been of this 
opinion and apparently sent Home specimens of his 
G, bulhifera under the name of ColebrooMa^ an unde- 
fined name long ago published by Mr, James Donn 
in his Cambridge Catalogue, but never taken up and 
since superseded by Eoxb. and Smith's Colebrookia^ 
a genus of Labiatese. 

2002. Globba ophioglossa (R. W.), leaves short 
petioled, acuminate, glabrous; panicles terminal : lip 
linear pointed, deeply cleft ; interior lobes (petals) 
linear lanceolate : capsule globose, smooth. 

Malabar, Anamallay Hills, &c. 

This though, in appearance, like G, orixensis and 
Careyana is, I believe, quite distinct from both. I 
have named it with reference to its long deeply two- 
cleft lip, a character of some value when added to 
the naked anther. The leaves are perfectly glab- 
rous on both sides. The perianth in both this and 
the preceding is thickly dotted with red, resinous, 
shining translucent points. It has no trace of exte- 
rior bracts and tubers, similar to the preceding, and 
as regards inflorescence, so different that it may well 
be placed in different genera. 

2003. ZiNGiREK ZERUMBET (J, E. Smith), stems 
declinate, leaves sessile lanceolar : spike long pedun- 
cled, oval, compact, obtuse: bracts broad obovate 
obtuse, margins coloured: lip 3-lobed. Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. 1. 47. 

Anamallay Hills, in dense forests, frequent, flower- 
ing during the rainy season, August and September. 

This is an extensively diffused species. Roxburgh 
assigns the woods about Calcutta as its Bengal sta- 
tion ; in the Southern forests, I fancy it extends nearly 
as far south as Cape Comorin. The liead of flowers 

Abundant in the Auamallay forests, also on Bolam- 
putty Hills near Coimbatore, flowering from July to 

This is a large species forming by its undergi-ound 
progression large patches. In favourable spots the 
stems attain a height of from 4 to 6 or even 8 feet. 
The spikes seem to continue enlarging indefinitely 
all the growing season as I have seen many that 
measured at least a foot in diameter. They ripen 
their seed abundantly and when mature, and tlie cap- 
sules burst, showing the numerous seed, each clothed 
with a large pure white saccate arillus, and the deep 
crimson of the inner surface of the capsule, they form 
a beautiful object. When the drawing was made 
they were not so for advanced, and when sent to the 
lithographer the deficiency could not be supplied. 

is supported on a stalk springing direct from the root, 

from 2 to 3 feet long, sheathed, its whole length, in 

scariose rudimentary leaves, and along side of it 

grows the proper leaf-bearing stalk. This, there- any of them. 

■fore, is as much a root flowering species as the next, 

the length of the peduncle being the only difference. 

2005. CuRcvMA AROMATicA (Salisb. C, Zedoaria, 
Roxb.), bulbs small and, with the long palmate tubers, 
inwardly yellow: leaves broad lanceolar, sessile on 
their sheaths, sericeous underneath : except the spike, 
the whole plant of a uniform green. Eoxb. 

^Malabar, frequent, flowering from April or May 
until August or September. 

This plant very generally agi-ees with Roxburgh's 
description, even down to minute particulars, still 
I do not feel certain that it actually is his species. 
If, however, it is not, it is so near that actual compa- 
rison of specimens must determine the differences. 
The bracts of the spike are pale gi-een below, gra- 
dually passing into deeper pink until the last are 
almost crimson. The outer perianth is pink, and 
inner and lip yellow. 

The genus Curcuma^ so fai- as regards the determi- 
nation of species, is rather difficult, but to distin- 
guish a Curcuma from any other genus of the order 
is easy after any one of its species is known. The 
peculiar formation of the spike, and very charac- 
teristic bracteal sacks which are common to all, pro- 
claim at a glance the genus. I make this remark 
under this species, because it is better shown here 
than in the other, but the difterence is in tlic draw- 
ing not in nature, for with the plant in hand there is 
no mistaking the genus though, as respects the spe- 
cies, it may still be a question whether I have 
judged rightly, in making it a new species. One very 
objectionable set of specific characters has been had 
recourse to for distinguishing the species, those, name- 
ly, taken from the roots. To my mind, such charac- 
ters are objectionable as being parts beyond the 
reach of observation in the growing plant, and a5 not 
being preservable in the dried one. The habit and 
foliage is certainly much alike in all the species, but 
doubtless, if carefully studied, the bracts and flowers 
would be found to furnish better ones, and not liable 
to the above objections. Neither having roots nor 
growing plants before me, I find it most difiicult to 

indicate characters by Avhich the following species 
can be distinguished from the 20 others of the genus, 
though, so far as I can detect, it does not accord with 



2004. Zingiber squarkosum (Roxb.)i leaves lan- 
ceolar : spikes squarrose, half innnersed in the earth: 
bracts linear, with a long waved tapering point : lip 
3-lobed, apex bifid. 

leaves scarcely petioled, lanceolate, somewhat cus- 
pidate, glabrous : spikes scarcely rising above the 
ground, compact : limb of the bracts prolonged, sub- 
lanceolate, obtuse, longer than the flowers, reflexed: 
outer lobes of the perianth linear cuspidate, inner 


( 16 ) 


oiies obovato-Ianceolate, obtuse : lip broad, subor- 
bicular, bidentate at the apex : anther spurs short : 
capsule globose, glabrous, crowned with the withered 
remains of the flower. 

Neilgherries, very abundant on the S, Western 
slopes about Neddawuttim, flowering during the 
spring months, before the leaves appear, but con- 
tinuing in flower long after they are full grown. 

This is a small species, the largest leaves scai'cely 
exceeding a span or 12 inches long. The terniiiuil 
tuft of the spike is very full, of a deep pink, while 
the lower bracts are at first pale yellowish, changing 
to greenish. Flowers, especially the lip, deep yellow, 
the lateral lobes more membranous and paler. 

2007. ELr.TTARTA CANN<ECARPA (R. W.), sarnicu- 
tose, underground shoots bearing the spikes : leaves 
lanceolate, acutely acuminate, glabrous: florifcrous 
stems clothed with sheathing scariose leaves, at length 
ascending, spikes short ovate ; bracts lanceolate, red : 
perianth hairy on the throat and lip : outer lobes 
obovate, lanceolate, sub-cuspidate, inner reduced to 2 
subulate teeth or spurs; lip oval, bicuspidate : fila- 
ment produced beyond the anther ; capsule globose, 
echinate all over. 

Huliculdroog, Neilgherries, in dense forest, flower- 

ing May. 

Stems 4-6 feet high, procumbent and rooting at 
the base, afterwards ascending, the procumbent por- 
tion giving off the spikes which scarcely rise above 
ground, spikes oblong oval, bracts deep pink at the 
apex, paler below, perianth yellow, fruit dark brown- 
ish purple, beset all over with soft j)rikles resembling 
those of a canna. This species seems very distinct 
from the others — when recent it exhales an aromatic 

2008-9. Hedychium flavescens (Roscoe), leaves 
lanceolate acuminate, villous beneath, the acumen 
withering : spike capitate, imbricate : exterior bracts 
broad; obtuse, ciliate at the apex ; the interior ones 
cylindrical, 2-3-flowered : lip broad, 2-lobed, as long 
as the filament. 

Neilgherries, frequent, in low swampy ground. In 
sheltered situations where the fine foliage and hand- 
some heads of flowers are not injured by high winds, 
this is a very handsome plant, and, owing to the 
flowers opening in succession, continues long in flower. 
It seems very rarely to produce seed. I do not 
recollect ever having seen its fruit. The flowers are 
pale yellow, afterwards deepening a little, but seldom 

deeper than straw colour. 

2010. HEDTcniuM coKONAKiuM (WlUd.), leavcs 
lanceolate, pubescent beneath : spike capitate, imbri- 
cate : bracts broad ovate, acute : lip orbicular, bifid 
at the apex, longer than the filament. 

Neilgherries, Kotergherry Ghauts, at an elevation 
of about 4000 feet, very abundant, forming large 
patches in moist almost marshy soil. Very like the 
preceding from which it is most readily distinguished 
by the form of the bi'acts, and the interior or peta- 
loid lobes of the perianth which are very different. 
Flowers pure white, fragrant. 

201 1 . Hedychium cernuum (R. W.)» leaves short 
petioled, long lanceolate, acutely acuminate : spike 
cernuous, loose : bracts narrow, obtuse ; lobes of the 

perianth narrow linear, longer than the stamen : lip 
lanceolate, bifid at the apex : capsule globose, hairy : 
seed involute in a large loose membranous arillus. 

Neilgherries, Burlcar, on the Eastern slopes, on the 
banks of a stream, rare. The fruit when mature are 
of a dark reddish or deep orange colour. This seems 
to be a rare plant, but the locality mentioned is not 
the only one where I have found it, but the others 
are not noted. 

2012. IIedyciiilm venustdm (R. W.), leaves long 
petioled, lanceolate, acute ; spike drooping, lax; bracts 
linear, obtuse, margined : lobes of the perianth nar- 
roAv, exterior somewhat lanceolate, interior linear: 
all longer than the stamen, lip deeply cleft, lobes 

This figure is taken from » dried specimen, the 
station of which is not recorded, but I think Coorg. 

It is evidently nearly allied to the preceding, but 
is obviously quite distinct as shown by the long pe- 
tioled leaves and deeply cleft lip. 

2013. RoscoEA ALPiNA (Roylc), flowcTs few, pe- 
duncled, infolded in the sheaths of the leaves : calyx 
obliquely truncated, bidentate at the apex : the upper 
exterior segment of the corolla broad, somewhat 
vaulted : capsule linear. R. 

Simla, Masoori. I am indebted to Mr. Edge- 
worth for the drawing from which the figure was 
taken, and to the late Countess Dalhousie for speci- 
mens of the plant, from which the dissections were 
partly prepared and all verified. The character is 
copied from Dr. Royle's Illustrations. 

2013-2. RoscoEA LUTEA (Roylc), raceme spike* 
like, straight, exserted : flowers few : calyx oblique- 
ly truncate, obtuse, 3-toothed : capsule berry-like, 
roundish. R. 

I am indebted for the specimens from which the 
drawing was made, to the late Countess Dalhousie, 
aided by a drawing from the pencil of Mr. Edge- 
worth, but which did not seem to me to give a good 
idea of the plant in my possession which is more in 
accordance with that of Dr. Royle. These two 
species are introduced simply as illustrations of the 
genus which, though not hitherto found so far South, 

may yet be so. When the drawings were made I 

had overlooked the circumstance of both plants being 
already figured by Dr. Royle, otherwise I think I 
should not have introduced them here, even with 
original drawings. 

2014. CosTus sPEcrosus (Smith), leaves subses- 
sile, oval, short acuminate, villous beneath : sheaths 
fringed: spike oval: lip undulated, entire : filament, 
pubescent on the back. 

Anamally, Bolamputty Hills: also in the forests 
about Palghaut, &c. In a word it is a rather com- 
mon and certainly a very conspicuous plant, long 

retaining its beauty, being as attractive by its deep 
red heads of fruit, as by its handsome flowers, rarely 
more than two or tlu'ce of which are open at the 

same time. 

Costus Nepmdensis so much resembles this species 
that it seems to me they might easily be mistaken 
for each other, even when placed side by side. 

2015. Maranta virgata (Wall., Phryninm vir- 

gatum, Roxb.), stems simple, jointed, and knotted at 


( n ) 

the joints: leaves distichous, lanceolate: panicles 
terminal, loose, branches filiform: flowers scattered, 
paired, small, fruit hairy. 

^ CourtalluDi, Malabar, Bolumputty, &c. This spe- 
cies is nearly allied to the Maranta arundinacea^ or 
West Indian Arrowroot, but is not, I have heard, used 
in this country for the preparation of that farina. 

On the Malabar Coast where most of the Indian 
Arrowroot is prepared, I am told a variety of species, 
not of this order, but of the Zijigiberacem^ are used. 
Curcuma^ Costiis, Zingiber^ and Alpinia^ all being 

laid under contribution to supply the raw material, 
Maranta being rejected on account of the woodiness 
of the roots, rendering them at the same time difficult 
to work and unproductive. 

2016. Phrynium capitatum (Willd.), leaves ra- 
dical, long petioled, ovate oblong: heads of flowers 
petiolary and terminal, glomerate : bracts truncato- 
incurved. Roxb. Fl. In. 


I only know this plant from description and dri- 
ed specimens, never, so far as I recollect, hav- 
ing met with it growing. It and one or two 
others belonging to the genus, present forms very 
unusual in this order. In Rushes and Pontederea 

we have floriferous petiols, but so little was such an- 
ticipated by Liungeus among his Scitamineai that he, 
judging, I presume, from Rheede's figure only, re- 
ferred this plant to Pontederea and described it under 
the name of P. ovaia^ quoting Rheede's figure as his 
authority for the plant. I am not at all clear on the 
point of its bearing petiolar inflorescence as described 
by Roxburgh. The petiol, it seems to me, commences 
at the joint, and all below seems peduncle rather than 
petiol. I infer from Roxburgh's description that 
there are two forms of leaves, the first truly radical 
witliout flowers or joint, the other, a long peduncle 
bearing on its apex a tuft of flowers and a leaf, or, 
perhaps, it might more correctly be called a modified 
spadix and spathe. 

If this view be found correct, it will indicate an 
analogy if not an afllnity between this genus and 
Juncus, and through them, between the two families. 

2017-18. MusA supERBA (Roxb.), stem short, 
conical, thickly covered with the spongy petiols of 
decayed not sheathing leaves : leaves petioled, linear, 
rounded at both ends, cuspidate : spadix drooping : 
spathes broad, oblong, obtuse, subcordate at the base, 
many flowered, hermaphrodite ones persistent. 

Anamallay Hills, generally in clumps in crevices of 
rocks, often almost inaccessible, very rarely flowering 
or producing fruit. Tlie drawing, all except figures 
2 and 3, which were from a wild specin^en, were 
taken from a plant introduced into a garden here. 
The remains of the leaves with which the stem is 
clothed are compressible, but not properly soft. A 
sort of corky feel, but when cut into are found com- 
posed of large cells, the coriaceous walls of which 
cause the resistance experienced on pressing. Their 
thickness, towards the base or point of attachment, 
is about three or four inches. It is, as seen gi'owing 
among its native rocks, a handsome plant not so as 
seen in the garden, where, owing to exposure, it had 
become very much torn and ragged. Roxburgh says 
he received the plants he desciibes from the Dindigul 
range of hills. It may therefore be as well to add 
that the Anamallay Ilills form part of the same range. 

The lyamallay and Bolamputty Ilills form another 

group of hills near Coimbatore on which this nlant 
is also indigenous. The cluster of young fruit 
is, for want of room, reduced in size. 

> piani 
, fig- 1. 

2019-20. Crixum LATrroLiuM (Linn.), bulb glo- 
bose, stemless : leaves glabrous, lanceolate, waved, 
tapering to the point, bluntish, rough on the margins : 
scape erect, many-flowered (10-15): flowers sessile, 
declinate with an obliquely campanulate border: fruit 
a fleshy tuber with imperfect seed. 

Coimbatore district, not unfrequent in cultivated 
ground or under the shelter of hedges, flowering dur- 
ing rainy weather, most freely during the autumnal 
months. It is, when in full flower, a very handsome 
plant, but is seldom seen in that state unless cut over 
night before the flowers open, they being so subject 
to attacks of insects that of a rich cluster looked at, and 
pronounced most beautiful by moon light, the even- 
ing before, the fragments only are found next morn- 
ing. When the scape is cut and immersed in a bottle 
of water they open equally well, and then they will en- 
dure a couple of days and are most beautiful. The 
foliage of the plant figured is not in proportion to the 
flower, but that for want of I'oom was considered an ad- 
vantage when selecting the specimen for representation, 

2021-22. Crinum ToxicARiuM (Roxb.), "Caule- 
scent : leaves sparce, lanceolar : flowers pedicelled, nu- 
merous (even as far as 60 in a hemispheric umbel) : 
capsules with one or two bulliform seeds." Roxb. 

Coimbatore, not unfrequent in low lying rich soU, 
usually flowering on every recurrence of wet weather. 
Like the preceding, it furnishes savoury food to cer- 
tain insects, for, opening its flowers after sun set, they 
are generally devoured before sun rise. The leaf 
represented is smaller than the original which was 
about 3 feet long and over 6 inches broad. In place 
of forming seed, the fruitful ovaries become converted 
into tubers which grow when planted, but so far as 
I have ever seen it ripens no seed- 

2023- Pancratium vERECUNnuM (Soland), spathe 
4-8-flowered: leaves linear acute: limb of the cor- 
olla shorter than the tube: divisions of the crown 
alternately deeper, stamens incurved, two or three 
times longer than the segments of the crown. 

Coimbatore, not unfrequent near hedges where the 
soil is rich and light, flowers most freely during the 
autumnal rains, but is generally to be met with in 
flower during rainy weather. The flowers are pure 
white, the leaves lineai-, radiating all round and curv- 
ed back causing their tips to rest on the ground. It 
is pretty, but, like the two former, very fugaxiious, 
the flowers opening after sun set and usually before 
morning they are consumed, if not saved by being 
cut and made to blow out of the reach of their 

2024. Agave vivitera (Linn.), stemless, leaves 
all radical, dentate: scape panicled : tube of the cor- 
olla contracted in the middle : stamens equaling or 
somewhat exceeding the lobes of the perianth. 

This is an introduced and naturalized plant, and 
on that ground is scarcely entitled to a place in a 

work on Indian Botany. I have, however, in this 

ami the following instance departed from that rule, 
as affording examples of an interesting metamor- 
phosis by which the flower buds become converted 

( 18 ) 

Into tubei's and leaves capable of reproducing the 
plant, and further for the purpose of informing many 
persons in India, who take an interest in such in- 
quiries, that tliey are American not Asiatic plants. 
The plant from which the accompanying figure was 
taken grew at Palamcottah. It may perhaps be 
noticed, with surprise by some, that this is said to 
be stemless notwithstanding its gigantic stem of some 
20 or 30 feet high. The stem in this case, howevei% 
is not a true stem, but a scape or flower stalk, ter- 
minating in a large panicle of flowers and viviperous 
buds. It is in truth tlie same in kind, only much 
larger, as the flower stalks of the preceding Crinums, 
Wildcnow calls it a branched scape- I have taken 
the liberty of altering the expression and called it a 
panicled one, in contradistinction to a spiked and 
vacemed one, which it actually is. The Agave Ame- 
ricana^ or as it is usually called, American Aloe, now 
so common all over the country, belongs to the same 
genus, and, as the name imports, comes from the 
same country- They are not aloes. Ruraphius has 
introduced a figure of this plant into his Herb. 
Amboynensis, apparently, on the supposition of its 
being indigenous in that island. 

2025, FouRCROYA GiGANTEA (Veutcnat), stemless: 
leaves entire : scape panicled. 

This, as remarked above, Is also an introduced 
plant common about Bangalore and Seringapatam 
as a hedge row plant. It is distinguished generically 
from the other by its perianth, the filaments being 
dilated at the base, the large fleshy protuberance at 
the base of the style and crowning the ovary, and by 
the fringed stigma. Like the preceding it is also vi- 
viperous. The drawing was taken from plants gi'ow- 
ing at Bangalore- 



Mai. 11. tab. 14), leaves sub-sessile from broad lanceo- 
late obtuse to lanceolate, cuspidate: panicle terminal, 
erect, many-flowered : outer series linear, obtuse, 
somewhat concave, lip unguiculate, sub-orbicular, 2- 
lobcd claw with two dilatations at the base (lateral 
lobes of the inner perianth) each terminating in a 
subulate point, capsules globose, slightly downy. 

Malabar, Courtallum. Roxburgh quotes Rheede's 
plate for his Alpinia Allugas, and, judging from his 
description, except the lip which he does mention as 
unguiculate, not without reason, but he at the same 
time quotes Roscoe as his authority for the name. 
Roscoe's plant, as represented in his Monandrean 
Scitaminious plants, seems to me totally different 
from both Rheede's and mine, which quite corres- 
pond, hence I am precluded from adopting his name. 
Such being the case, I have found it necessary to 
view this as a new species and have given it the 
name of the original discoverer. One circumstance 
of note is the character given of the appendages at 
the base of the claw described by Roxburgh as " two 
fleshy protuberances near the base." In my plant 
they are flat, somewhat coriaceous, ascending, and 
each terminates in an erect subulate tooth, but not 
well represented in the plate. They are coloured, 
for even in the dry plant they remain darker— a 
reddish brown— than the claw to which they belong. 
I dare say it is scarcely necessary to mention that 

Costm^ is reduced to the lip with occasionally two 

subulate teeth at the base. In Roscoe's plate of A. 
Allugas they are represented as globose fleshy bodies. 
This, when grown in favourable circumstances, seems 
to be a very handsome plant, the panicles being large 
and the flowers very numerous. 

they are the rudimentaiy lateral lobes of the inner 
series of the perianth, which, In this genus and in 

2027. Alpinia nutans (Roscoe), leaves lanccolar, 
short petioled, smooth : racemes compound by the 
lower pedicels being two or three-flowered, di'uoping: 
lip large ovate, cordate, obscurely three-lobed at the 
base ; middle lobe curled on the margin : ovary 
hairy, oval, 3-celled ; ovules attached to the middle 
of the partitions : capsules globose, sprinkled with 
short hairs. 

The specimen (which at the time happened to be 
my only available one) taken to convey an idea of 
this most gorgeous plant is so unfit for the purpose 
that I was only induced to use it as presenting an 
unusual form, an erect in place of a droojiing raceme — 
as most conspicuously showing the spathe in which 
it is at first enclosed ; the small leaf at the end often 
enlarges so much that the spathe portion becomes 
obscured — and lastly, but principally, because at the 
time the drawing was made it was virtually the 
only species of the genus I had, my others having 
accidentally got mislaid. It does not convey so good 
an idea of the characters of the species as I could 
wish, but it was for the sake of illustrating the genus 
it was used and that it does well, by showing all its 
characters. Here we see the large common spathe 
of the whole panicle ; at fig. 1, a partial spathe 
enclosing several flowers, at 2, that opened showing 
one flower open and an unopened bud. The un- 
opened one encloses in addition to its own flowers 
another younger bud. The dissected flower, fig. 3, 
shows the perfect exterior series of the perianth and 
the lip, but no lateral lobes of the inner series, these 
are not constant and seem to have been absent in 

this specimen, as the examination of several flowers 
gave no sign of their presence, though I have since 
seen indications in another specimen: it also shows 
the stamen and style in situ, the anther without ap- 
pendage of any sort. Fig. 5 shows the ovary with 
the perfect and rudimentary styles, figures 6 and 7, 
transverse and vertical sections of the ovary, the 
former showing the placentas attached to the middle 
of the partitions, not to the edges in the axis. Fig. 
8 presents a full grown capsule, 9 a seed, 10 the same 
cut so as to show the position of the embryo and 
11-12 two embryos detached showing their very 
peculiar form ; they are flattened, somewhat foliace- 
ous, with the radicle springing from the middle and 
pointing towards the hilum. 

2028, AiriNiA calcarata (Roscoe), flowers ter- 
minal, spike slightly declined, downy ; lip large ovate, 
crenate, slightly bifid ; spurred at the base : leaves 
narrow lanceolate, unequal-sided. Roscoe. 

Shevagherry Hills, flowering August. 

The only point in which the figure dificrs from 
the character is the undivided lip, and that as shown 
in Roscoe's plate is sometimes reduced to mere slight 
emargination, so that I have no doubt of this being 
the true plant. Fig. 5 represents an unusual form, 
a diaiidrous flower, the stamens being attached on 
either edge of the lip. The flower represented was 
the only one I could find on the specimen- 

( 19 ; 

2029. K^MPFERiA ROTUNDA (WiUd.), leaves ob- 
long, coloured : spike radical, appearing before the 
leaves ; lateral lobes of the corolla obovato-lanceolate, 
acute : lip deeply 2 -cleft, lobes obovate, very obtuse, 
crest of the anther linear, forked, with a small tooth 


The two figures in the accompanying plate may 
be distinct species, a point I cannot determine with 
my present materials, but I think it more probable 
they are but variations of the same. The lip in the 
nameless one, of which 1 have a coloured drawing, is 
a beautiful lilac, tending to plum colour, 

2030- MoNOLOPHUs scAPosus (Dalzell, Hedy^ 
chium scaposum^ Nimmo in Graham's Catalogue), 
stemless, root fibrous with small oblong tubers : leaves 
lanceolate, glabrous, long acuminate ; petiol and limb 
of equal length ; scape erect, round, about 2 feet long, 
sparingly leafy : spike terminal, compact, imbricated, 
many-flowered : flowers 2-3 to each common bract, 
each furnished with a smaller partial bract, opening 
in succession i common bracts lanceolate, shorter than 
the flowers ; flowers long tubular : posterior lobe of 
the exterior perianth larger than the lateral ones : 
lip broad ovato-cordate, 2-clefti: anther terminating 
in a short obtuse crest : ovary S-celled, placentas 
axile, capsule 3-celled, seed obovate embraced by a 
loose lobed aril, embryo axile, curved. 

Malabar Coast; Karlee, Niramo; Malwan, Dalzell. 

I am indebted to Dr. Stocks, for my specimen of 
this plant accompanied by flowers and fruit preserved 
in spirits for the analysis. It differs in some particu- 
lars from Wallich's Monolophus^ but not sufficiently, 
it appears to me, to justify its forming the type of a 
genus. I extract the following very accurate de- 
scription, of the flower, by Mr. Dalzell, from Hooker's 
Kew Garden Miscellany, vol. 2, page 143. 

Calyx tubular, 3-toothed, cleft ; teeth obtuse, about 
equal. Corolla ; tube cylindrical, curved, 4-5 times 
longer than the limb : two anterior exterior petals 
linear oblong, 5-7-nerved, flat ; the posterior one 
sub-cucuUate, mucronate, all reflexed during expan- 
sion: interior petals much larger, lip, the largest, 
broad obtuse, bifid at the apex. Filament very short, 
about a line long and broadj extended beyond the 
anther into a sliort rounded reflexed strap. Stigma 
funnel-shaped, tubercled on the back. 

2031-32. LiLTuM Neilgherrense (R. W.), erect, 

leaves sessile, scattered, broad ovato-lanceolate, ab- 
ruptly acuminate, sub-cuspidate, glabrous ; flower 
bypocrateriform, ascending ; tube long, throat cam- 
panulate, naked ; limb spreading : capsule obtusely 
3-angled, 3-sided. — In this species the leaves are about 
3 inches long by \\ broad, sub-cordate at the base. 
Neilgherries,. flowering July and August. 

2033-34. LiLiTJM TUBiPLORUM (R. W.), leaves scat- 
tered, short petioled, narrow lanceolate, tapering to a 
point, glabrous : flowers ascending, bypocrateriform ; 
tube long, prominently ribbed along the sutures : 
throat campanulate, limb spreading, lobes somewhat 
revolnte at the apex. — Leaves 4-6 inches long; 6-8 
lines broad. 

2035. LiLiuM Walltchianum (R^em. and Schult.), 
stem slender, leafy, few- or one-flowered at the apex : 

leaves scattered, numerous, approximated, linear, 
acuminate, sessile : flowers hypocrateriforni, drooping; 
tube long; throat campanulate, naked, limb spread- 
ing. — Leaves 2-3 inches long, scarcely ^ inch broad, 
lanceolate acute, 

^ Neilgherries. All these species show a predilec- 
tion for rocky ground especially if kept humid by 
neighbouring'^ springs. They are very handsome 
plants and seem to merit more attention, as orna- 
mental objects, than they receive. 

Distinct as these three forms appear, I can scarcely 
expect they will prove, under cultivation, distinct 
species, but at the same time, with my present infor- 
mation, I do not feel justified in uniting them. In 
this state of uncertainty, I beg leave to solicit the 
attention of Mr. Mclvor, and any Botanists who may 
visit the Hills, to the subject. Mr. Mclvor may 
perhaps be able to set the question at rest in a 
single, or at most two seasons, by raising plants from 
seed and ascertaining whether those taken from any 
of the forms run indiscriminately into all, or are con- 
stant to their parental form. The same experiments 
ought to be tried on plants obtained by dividing the 
roots, and grown under different circumstances. 

Anthericum. Bulbine. Phalangilm. 

In determining the genus to which I should refer 
the following plants, which, I presume, all belong to 
one genus, I felt much at a loss how to decide. Autho- 
rities are conflicting : and on endeavouring to trace 
the names back to their origin, I found the obscurity 
Increase in place of diminish. Linnaeus, in the first 
edition of his Genera Plantarum, had two genera — 
Bulbine and Anthericum^ the former having bearded, 

the other beardless filaments. These he afterwards 
united, retaining Anthericum as the name of the en- 
larged genus. Jussieu in his Genera divided the 

genus into two, retaining Anthericum for the species 
with bearded filaments (the original Linnean Bul- 
bine), and restoring Tournefourt's Phalangiinn for 

the reception of those with beardless filaments. Since 
that time, these three genera have been taken up 
and laid down, apparently at the will of each suc- 
cessive writer, and now there is no end of confusion 
in the synonyme. The characters, with the excep- 
tion of the filaments, are so nearly the same in all, 

that the only question for determination seems to be 
whether the filaments being beardless or bearded 
affords a sufficient generic distinction, for if so, then 
by going back to originals we get at a definite nomen- 
clature. It is now to be regretted that Jussieu, in re- 
storing the original Linnean geneia, did not adopt his 
original names, which would have saved much trouble 
to his followers, a course the more desirable as at 
the time he restored the generic name Phalangium 
to Botany, it was alrendy established as a generic 
name in Zoology, a circumstance I overlooked when, 
following Kunth, I adopted the Jussieuan name in 
preference to the complex Linnean one. But for this 
oversight I should undoubtedly have fallen back on 
the nomenclature of the 1st edition of Linmeus' 
Genera Plantarum, adopting Bulbiiie for those species 
with bearded filnments, and Anthericum for the follow- 
ing ones which have them beardless ; for I consider 
these characters which are very constant, as of suf- 
ficient value to divide the group of species, associated 
under the latest Linnean Anthericum^ into two good 
genera. Linn<Teus' generic character of Anthericum, 

in the later editions of his Genera and Species Plan- 


( 20 ) 


tarum, was, "Cal. O,covl. 6 petals, spreading, oblong, 
obtuse. Stamens : six, filaments subulate, erect : an- 
thers small, iucumbent, 4-furrowed. Pistilj germeu 
obsoletely 3 -cornered : style simple : stigma obtuse, 

^}-corncred. Fruit an ovate, glabrous, 3-furrowed, 3- moval from the genus, 
celled, 3-valved, capsule. Seed numerous, angular." 
Under this character he and others have placed seve- 
ral species which have since been removed to other 
genera, lu Kunth's Enumeratio Plantarum, the name 
Anthericum appears as a synonym under some 5 or 6 

I have added a mark of doubt to the generic name 

on account of the few-ovulcd ovaries and the posi- 
tion of the ovules, superposed, not collateral. I doubt 
whether the difference Is sufficient to justify its re- 

distinct genera. But the genuine species are ranged 
under two, Bulbine and Pkalangium, those with beard- 
ed anthers being referred to the former, those with 
beardless ones (of which all the following are exam- 
ples) to the latter. The following is Kuuth's char- 
acter of Phalangium, somewhat abridged; " Calyx, 6 
sepals coroUaceous, persistent ; the 3 exterior ones 
spreading, the interior ones sometimes broader. Sta- 
mens 6 : filaments filiform, beardless : anthers 2-cell- 
ed, introrse, attached about the middle of the back. 
Ovary sessile, 3-celled : ovules in a double series hori- 
zontal, anatropous: style filiform: stigma thickish. 
Capsule 3-celled, 3-cornered, 3-valved, valves septi- 
ferous. Seeds few^ in each cell, angled, black, shin- 
ing, subscroblculate ; testa crustaceous, fragile: em- 
bryo axile, curved, nearly as long as the albumen, 
radicle iiext the hilum. — Herbs, with fascicled roots, 

scapiform, simple or somewhat branched stems : 
leaves membranaceous, sheathing: flowers pediceUed; 
pedicels bracteate, jointed above the base. 

From a comparison of these characters with the 
subjects figured in the 4 following plates it will be 
seen that, however different in general aspect, they 
all agree in the particulars noted in the written cha- 
racter, even the last, though so unlike the others, 
agi'ees in these particulars. I could have given figures 
of several other species but thought these enough to 

illustrate the genus. 

2036. Phalangium tuberosum (Kunth, Antlieri" 
cum tuberosum^ Roxb.)? roots numerous, fleshy, each 
terminating in an oblong tuber : leaves radical, sword- 
shajied, undulated on the margin : scape round, naked, 
flowers panicled : ovary oblong, ovules numerous, 
style ascending. Flowers white, 

A commoa plant in turfy soil, flowering during 
rainy Aveathcr in both spring and autumn. 

2037. Phalangium attenuatum (R. W.), roots 
fleshy, not (or rarely) tuberous : leaves all radical, 
sword-shaped, scarcely waved on the margin, long 
attenuated towards the point, membranous: scape 
round, naked, racemose, longer than the leaves : flow- 
ers numerous, 3-4 aggregated in the axils of the 
scariose bracts: ovary somewliat ovate, ovules nu- 
merous, style straight. Flowers white. 

Coimbatore, in cultivated and waste grounds and 
by hedge- rows, &c., flowering during rainy weather. 
Tliis is nearly allied to the preceding, but quite 


2038. Phalangium ? oligospkrmum (R. W.), 

roots fleshy, tuberous : leaves radical, oblong lanceo- 
late, waved on the margin, acute : scape terete, erect, 
branched ; branches racemose : ovary subglobose 3- 
celled, with 2 superposed ovules in each cell : style 
declining ; capsule 3-ceIled, 3-seeded : seed globose, 


Coimbatore, flowering July and August, flowers 


2039. Phalangium? parviflorum (R.W.)> roots 
numerous, fleshy, not tuberous : leaves linear lanceo- 
late, tapering towards the point : scapes several, 
axillary, slender, ascending, loosely flexuose : flowers 
small, 3-4 aggregated in the axils of the somewliat 
remote bracts, short pedicelled : ovary 3-celled; M'ith 
2 superposed ovules in each : style simple : capsule 
3-celled; cells 1-sccded: seed somewhat globose, con- 
cavely umbilicate below, rough : embryo curved. 

This IS a conmion plant which I have gathered in 
Coimbatore and many other localities. As in the 
preceding I have attached a mark of doubt to the 
generic name, and perhaps with better reason, leav- 
ing the question to be solved at some future time. 

2010. Ledebouria hyacinthtna, (Roth.) 

Common on the sea coast and also often met with far 
inland. I have specimens collected in Coimbatore. 

This is a small herbaceous bulbous rooted plant with 
linear rather obtuse spreading leaves, the tips when 
they touch the ground readily rooting, usually mottled 
with brown spots. Scapes one or two, erect, racemose- 
ly many-flowei'cd towards the apex : flowers greenish 
with a tinge of purple, six-parted, lobes persistent, 
withering. Stamens 6 as long as the lobes of the 
perianth. Ovary 3-celled, 2 collateral ovules in each, 
pendulous from the middle of the cell : capsule 3- 
celled, 3-valved, 3-seeded. Seed globose: embryo 
rather large, enclosed in a copious albumen, radicle 
inferior. — The drawing was made from a di'ied spe- 
cimen and does not show the leaves as seen in the 
growing plant, that is spreading all round with the 

tips curved towards the ground. 

2041. Barxakdia Ixdica (R. W.), leaves lanceo- 
late, channeled towards the base, sub-acuminate at 
the point, strongly nerved : scape terete, racemose, 
longer than the leaves : flowers cernuous, afterwards 
drooping : stamens as long as the perianth, fllaments 

dilated and shortly monodelphous at the base. 

Xeilgherries, Western slopes near Kedawuttim, 
also Nagpore, Jerdon. 

This plant I have not seen growing. The draw- 
ing was taken from living specimens communicated 
by Mr. Jerdon, flowering in May. He has since then 
sent me others fi'om Nagpore. 


Of two genera referred to this order, Curadigo and 
Hypoxis^ one is said to have the fruit baccate, the 
other capsular as their essential distinguishing marks. 
These characters, as regards the Indian species, I 
have not found sufficient to distinguish them, the fruit, 
at least in the dried plants, being the same in both, 
namely, an indehescent membranous capsule. I have 
therefore adopted another of more easy and certain 
application in practice. In Hypoxis the limb of the 
calyx rests immediately on the ovary without any 
intervening tube; in Curadigo a long slender tube 
intervenes between them. In Hypoxis the stigma is 


( 21 ; 

entii'e, more or less capitate, in CurcuUgo it is conspi- 
cuously three -lobcd. Making use of these characters 
I have found no difficulty, with one exception, in re- 
ferring the following plants to their respective genera. 

The exception alluded to is CurcuUgo Sumatrana, In 
it the tube of the perianth is shorter than in the others, 
and the stigma is somewhat capitate, not lobcd, as in 
the genuine species of the genus. Adding the dense 
capitate inflorescence to these, I am led to anticipate 
that this species will ultimately be removed, to form 
the type of an intermediate genus having the perianth 
of CurcuUgo, but much abbreviated, and the stigma of 
Hypoxis, The fruit and seed of ail are so much alike 
that I do not think distinctive characters can be ob- 
tained from these organs. 

A glance at the analysis of the following plates will 
explain my meaning by showing that the ovary of 
CurcuUgo is sessile in the axil of the bract, surmount- 
ed by a tube and flower, while in Hypoxis it is pe- 
dicelled with the flower on its apex. The seed in 
both is oval, round at both ends, furrowed longitu- 
dinally, with a lateral veiy conspicuous attachment- 
The testa is bright, shining black, and fragile under 
the knife. 

2042. CuKcuLiGo suMATRANA (Rosb., Loddlgcs), 
leaves long petioled, broad lanceolate narrowed at 
both ends, glabrous, plicately nerved: scape short, 
compact, cone-like : bracts ovato-lanceolate, about 
the length, or somewhat longer than the flowers, 
perianth wheel-shaped. 

Malacca, Griffith, 

Roxburgh is the original authority for the specific 
name and it was, I believe, from him that Loddiges 
obtained it, and it would appear, was the first, owing 
to the delay in the publication of the Roxburgian 
manuscripts, to publish it, whence, in Rsemcr and 
Schultes' Systema Yegetabilium, he is quoted as the 
authority for the name. 

Roxburgh quotes Rump. 6 tab. 53 for this plant, 
a very good figure of it. 


long petioled, linear lanceolate tapering at both ends, 
glabrous : scape, racemose, the lower flowers only 

hermaphrodite : all clothed with long soft pubescence : 
bracts ovate, tapering from the base, subulate, pointed: 

anthers deeply sagittate, stigma large, 3-lobed. 
Quilou, Malabar. 
Roxburgh quotes Rheede Hort. MaL 12-59, as 

"good" for hid C orchioides, I was in hopes that it 

might turn out this species, but on referring to it, I 
found it represented a different plant and not in 


2043. CuEcuLiGOBHEviFOLiA? (Aitou, Hoft Kcw), 
leaves sessile or short petioled, narrow linear lanceo- 
late, sprinkled with long soft hairs; scape short; 
lower flowers only hermaphrodite ; tube long slender, 
pubescent: bracts ovate, lanceolate and with the peri- 
anth clothed with long lax hairs: lobes of the limb 
of the perianth, lanceolate : stigma deeply three-lobed. 

Neilgherries, Anamally Hills, &c. 

A small low growing plant, the bright yellow flow- 
ers scarcely rising above the surface of the ground. 
Root perennial, somewhat fusiform. The drawing of 
this species was taken from the fi"esh plant, hence 

perhaps the flowers may appear large in proportion 
to the size of the plant as compared with those of the 
others, which, being taken from dried ones, probably 
smaller than they should be. 

2044. Hypoxis latifolta (R. W., CurcuUgo lat- 

ifoUa? Moon), leaves long petioled, lanceolate, acute 
at ^ both ends, glabrous, or sparingly sprinkled with 
hairs ; scapes axillary, short peduncled," racemose ; 
lower flowers longer pcdicclled, hermaphrodite ; upper 
ones male: bracts about the length of the pedicels, 
somewhat stem-clasping at the base, subulate pointed : 
sepals lanceolate acute, sparingly hairy on the back : 
style about the length of the stamens; stigma slightly 
3-wiiiged: capsule oblong, claviform. 

Ceylon, flowering in March. Mr. Moon quotes for 
his CurcuUgo laiifoUa^ Rump. 6 tab. 53, a plant very 
like this, but which is a true CurcuUgo, I therefore 
infer this to be the plant he meant, but referred it to 
a wrong genus. On this supposition I quote his name 
as a synonym to mine. He gives Colombo as the 
station. I do not know where I picked up my 

2045. Hypoxis i^eptostachya (R. W.), leaves 

long petioled, lanceolate, acute at both ends, glabrous 
above, sprinkled with longish lax hairs beneath: 
scapes short, slender, corymbose, lower flowers her- 
maphrodite, pedicels filiform, and, with the ovaiy and 
exterior sepals, hairy: sepals sub-obovate obtuse: 
capsules few-seeded. 

Malabar, flowering in June. 

The inflorescence in this species forms a perfect 
corymb, the pedicels which are very slender pro- 
gressively lengthening as they descend on the scape. 

2045. Hypoxis trichocarpa (R. W.), leaves long 
petioled, lanceolate, acute at both ends, glabrous 

above, laxly pilose beneath : scapes racemose and 
with the pedicels and ovary densely covered with 
long coarse brownish hairs : sepals ovate lanceolate, 
hairy on the back. 

]\Ialabar ? The station is not stated, but I believe 
it is Malabar- This, though like the preceding, is 
easily distinguished by the inflorescence which is more 
compact, stouter in all its parts, aud thickly covered 
with long coarse shaggy hair. 

2046. Hypoxis paucifloba (R. W,, CurcuUgo pnu- 

ciflora ? Moon), leaves longish petioled, narrow lan- 
ceolate, acute at both ends, glabrous, or sparingly 
sprinkled with short hairs : scape sparingly hairy, few- 
flowered : hermaphrodite flowers long pedicelled ; 
male ones shorter, slender, stipules narrow subulate : 
sepals ovate lanceolate acute, scarcely exceeding the 
stamens, glabrous, or very sparingly hairy on the 

Ceylon. There is no character to Moon's plant, 
hence I mcj-cly conjecture that this may be his fi'om 
the paucity of flowers. 



(comparatively) short petioled, ovato-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, sprinkled along the sides of the nerves with 
small tufts of short bristly hairs : scapes short and 
with the pedicels and ovary, coarsely hairy : bracts, 
minute, subulate : calyx lobes ovato-lanceolate acute 
exceeding the stamens, coarsely hairy on the back. 

( 22 ) 

Ceylon. This is at once distinguished from all the 
others by its shorter petals, thicker more coriaceous 
leaves, and the very distinct character of the hairs. 
They are certainly all nearly allied species. 

There are still two Peninsular species in my collec- 
tion, one from Mysore, apparently H, minor^ but the 
specimen is too imperfect for discrimination, the other 
nearly allied to H, trichostachya^ but differs in having 
longer racemes and nearly glabrous ovaries. 

Glortosa, (Lin.) Methonica. (Juss.) 

The respective claims of these two names to be 
retained to designate this "vere gloriosus flos" has 
been a subject of controversy among Botanists since 
the publication of Jussieu's Genera Plantarum in 
1791. In 1737 Linmeus published the first, in 1792 
Jussieu the second of these names, assigning, so far 
as shown by his book, no reason for the change. He 
simply wrote the words, "Methonica, Glortosa^ Lin," 
as if he had the right to set up and pull down ac- 
cording to his own will. Others, however, inform us 
that he objected to the prior name because it is an 

When about to name this plate, I determined to 
satisfy myself, at least, and I hope others as to the 
true merits of tlie case, and at the same time contri- 
bute my mite towards elucidating the principle of 
piiority in naming objects of natural history and 
establishing it on a proper basis. 

The doctrine of priority has most properly been 
insisted on as the only rule by which the rights of dis- 
covery could be preserved, ever since the publication 
of the Philosophia Botanica of Linn^'eus. Taking this 
then as the point on which the whole argument must 
turn, it becomes necessary at the outset of the dis- 
cussion to determine in what priority consists. 

Owing to numerous departures from it and the 
manifest inconvenience resulting, the British Associa- 
tion of Science was induced to take the subject into 
its serious consideration, and in 1840-41 appointed 
in the Zoological section a committee to examine and 
report on the subject. The report was presented and 
approved of in 1842. 

As the following paragraph of that report cannot 
be too extensively known, as being equally applica- 
ble to all branches of Natural History, I shall intro- 
duce it here, merely substituting the word " natural- 
historicaF' for Zoological, and then proceed to apply 
the principle it so clearly elucidates to the present 


Law roK regi^lating prioritt of names in 

Natural History. 

^^ Names not clearly defined may be changed. Unless 

a species or group is intelligibly defined when the 
name is given, it cannot be recognized by others and 
the signification of the name is consequently lost. 
Two things are necessary before a natural historical 
name can acquire any authority, viz. definition and 
publication Definition properly implies a distinct 
exposition of essential characters, and in all cases 
we conceive this to be indispensable, though some 
maintain that a mere enumeration of the component 
species or even of a single type, is sufficient to authen- 
ticate a genus. To constitute publication, nothing 
short of the insertion of tlie above particulars in a 
printed book can be held suflScient." And with 
regard to MSS. it is added, " they are in all cases 
liable to create confusion, and it is therefore much 

to be desired that the practice of using them should 

be avoided in future." Extract from Beport 1842 
on Zoological Nomenclature of the Zoological Com- 
mittee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, 

Keeping this rule, viz., the absolute necessity of 
both " definition and publication," to constitute prio- 
rity in naming objects of Natural History steadily in 
view, I now turn to Kuuth's Enumeratio Plantarum, 
vol. 4, pubfished 1843, the latest general Avork on 

Botany, and at page 275 I find 

Methonica, Herm., Juss., Endlicher, [Meisner] 
Gloriosa^ Lin., Ga^rt. 

Turning now to Herman for his definition of the 
genus, on which only he is entitled to claim the pater- 
nity of the name, all we find is " Methonica ]Mala- 
barorum," Methonica of the Malabars. There is no 
definition, the citation, therefore, in a controversial 
discussion is, to say the least, inappropriate, being 
without weight in the ai-gument. In like manner 
both Endlicher and Meisner quote Herman as the 
authority for the genus. Jussieu, the real authority 
for the genus, the name of which only he borrowed 
from Herman, gave it simply as his own and it is 
his, as raucli as if he had invented the name for the 
occasion. To quote Herman, therefore, as the autho- 
rity for the genus, he having contributed a name 
only, is mere special pleading, unworthy of those 
who have recourse to it, as the matter in dispute is 
between Jussieu and Linnaeus, not between Linnajus 
and Herman. On turning next to Linna?us' Genera 
Plantarum and Hort. Cliffbrtianus, we find a new com- 
petitor brought into the field, viz., Tournefourt, a name 
as celebrated and an authority as high as his own. 
He there gives his own name, " Gloriosa," with 
Methonica^ Tournef., A. G. 1706, " quoted as a syno- 
nym, clearly showing that the name occurs in Tour- 
nefourt's works, but not in his Institutiones^ and, there- 
fore, the genus not taken up and defined, which last 
would have constituted him (Tournefourt) the autho- 
rity for the genus and, in that case, Herman would 
probably never have been heard of, nor would Lin- 
naeus have attempted to supersede him in the name. 
Of course, had Linnaeus so willed, he might have 
adopted Herman's Malabar name and there would 
have been an end of the matter, but being so vastly 
delighted with this truly glorious flower, he did not 
think un unintelligible barbarous name nearly good 
enough, and, therefore, for once departing from his 
own excellent rules, gave an adjective designation 
to the genus. And why not ? and having carefully 
defined and published his name, I ask, who has a 
right to change it ? And I further ask, who or what 
gave Jussieu the right to constitute himself his pre- 
ceptor's teacher in the matter of forming his generic 
names ? For myself, I reply, I am unable to answer 
either question, but hope that Meisner, most unhap- 
pily the only survivor of the illustrious trio named 

above, who retain Methonica^ may be able to do so, or 
if not, will at once acknowledge himself in error in 
setting aside the older name and so bring this need- 
lessly protracted controversy to an end. 

When investigating this question I stumbled on a 

curious blunder on the part of the writer of the 
aiticJe, Oloriosa^ in Rees' Cyclopiedia. He says, 
" Tournefourt, objecting to the name given by Lin- 
naeus, because it is an adjective, called this genus 
Methonica^ in which he has been followed by Jussieu, 
and indeed by all French Botanists," &c. 

C 23 ; 


T!ie error to which I allude is, that of making 
Touniefourt object to the name. He died in 1708 
aud Linnaeus was born 1707, at which rate the latter 
must have given the name before he was one year old. 

The principle of the rule of priority in fixing the 
names of objects of natural history seems until of late 
to have been either much misunderstood or else very 
capriciously used, as we occasionally find, even among 
high authorities, grievous departures from it. The 
late Mr. Don, when writing his Flora Nepalensis 
seems to have so utterly misunderstood it that we 
find him in many instances setting aside defined and 
l^ublished names in favour of manuscript ones of 
presumed older date, and in several instances, appa- 
rently acting on the sic volo sic jubeo principle, set- 
ting aside those of DeCandolle merely because he 
thought he could give better ones. On the occasion 

of substituting Harniltonia for Mr. Brown's Sperma- 

dictyon^ he even goes so far as to say, "nomen Sper- 
madictionis nimis ^uris terribile est servandura, 
thus constituting himself the censor of what is or is 
not sufficiently euphonious to be borne by the ears 
of future Botanists. A most startling presumption. 

It must, however, be observed, in justice to Mr. 
Don, that that was not the primary reason for the 
name of Hamiltonia superceding Spermadictj^on in 

his book, which seems to have originated in tlie cir- 
cumstance of Dr. Wallich having overlooked the fact 
that pre-occupation only, can be permitted to set aside 
a defined and published name, and as the case affords 
an excellent illustration of the mischief resulting from 
a departure from the law of priority as established 
by definition and publication, I shall, so far as my 
information enables me, endeavour give a history of 

it and trace it to its consequences. 

Roxburgh, in his Manuscript Flora Indica, had 
giv^en the name Hamiltonia to a genus of plants, and 

sent drawings and descriptions of two species so 
named to the India House. 

One of these was selected by Mx. Brown as Editor, 
for publication in the Coromandel Plants, but in the 
mean time, Willdenow (Sp. Plantar. 4., 1114), had 
pre-occupied the name, he (Brown) therefore chang- 
ed Roxburgh's MS. name and substituted in Rox- 
burgh's name the very appropriate and classically 
constructed name of Spernmdictyon^ which was ac- 
cordingly published, giving Roxburgh's definition and 
description of the plant, witli the jjlate. The name 
so published ought never aftersvards to have been 

disturbed, nor indeed Uie existence of Hamiltonia, as 
a Roxburgian name, made known. 

Dr. AVallich, however, when editing Dr. Rox- 
bm-gh's Posthumous Flora, apparently, thinking he 
was not at liberty to alter the MS. retained the super- 
seded name, adding a note, stating that " that was the 
genus called Spermadictyon in the Coromandel Plants, 
in consequence of the name Hamiltonia having been 
given by Willdenow (without any good reason in his 

opinion) to Michaux's Pyrnlai^iay In so acting he, 

for the time, lost sight of the principle of definition 
and publication, so thoroughly fixing a name that 
nothing short of pre-occupation can authorize its be- 
ing afterwards set aside or changed. But he has 
since corrected his error by restoring Spernnulictyon 
in his list of Indian plants as has Steudel in his Xo- 
menclator Botauicns- 

But the mischief has not stopped there, for Steudel, 

while doing justice to Spermadictjjon has, as shall bo 

immediately shown, done an equal injustice to Pyrw 

laria in superseding it by Willdenow's Hamiltonia. 
Schultes, Endlicher, and Meisner, on the contrary, 

concur in sacrificing Willdenow's Hamiltonia at the 
shrine of Michaux's Pyrularia^ and Spermadictyon at 
that of Roxburgh's Hamiltonia, 

DeCandolle, apparently endeavouring to escape the 
difficulty by steering a middle course, only made mat- 
ters worse. He wishing to preserve Roxburgh's name, 

chooses to forget Willdenow's Hamiltonia^ and then 

set about settling the difference between Hamiltonia^ 
Roxb., and Spermadictyon^ Roxb., which he did by 
quoting as authority for the former, the undefined 
name of Roxburgh's Catalogue of the Calcutta Bot. 
Garden, published in 1814 against the defined one 
of the Coromandel Plants published in 1819. This, 
as already said, only makes the matter worse, for 
while the law declares that an undefined catalogue 
name can never be allowed to take precedence of 
a fully defined and published one, he practically 
declares the reverse to be the correct rule, that is, 
that defined and published names ought to be set 
aside in favour of undefined catalogue ones of earlier 
date. In this proceeding he has, either through igno- 
rance or carelessness, been most improperly followed 
by all subsequent writers on the genus, myself in- 
cluded- Steudel and Wallich being the only ones 
who have taken a correct view of the case. 

Let us now turn to Willdenow's Hamiltonia and 
try it by tlie same standard. Wallich's note having 
informed me that, in his opinion, the name was given 
without any good reason, I was induced to follow 
up the inquiry to ascertain hoAv far his opinion was 
well founded. The case stands thus. 

Michaux published in 1803, in his North American 
Flora, his genus Pyrularia, duly defined, that is, so 
that it could be recognized by others. Willdenow, 
it wonld appear, had received specimens of the same 
plant named in a letter (I suppose of a prior date), 
Hamiltonia oleifera^ and on the strength of this MS. 
priority adopted that name, giving Michaux's Pyru- 
laria pubera as a synonym ! ^^''ell might Dr. Wal- 
lich in such a case say, " for no good reason," but 
still, bad as the case is, it did not, as Wallich now 
admits, authorize the restoration of Roxburgh's name. 
The consequence of this blunder of AVilldenow is, that 
both the Ilamiltonias must be, indeed are, set aside 
and the name of that highly respected person does 
not now occupy a nitch in the Botanical temple, 
though both an Indian and American Botanist has 

respectively essayed to place it there : for, curi- 
ously enough, both, in giving tlie name, had the 
same person in view, Mr, William Hamilton of 

The corallaries from all this are sufficiently self evi- 
dent — first, Jus?ieu — I write the word w*lli reluctance, 
but truth compels me to say that the great and ex- 
cellent Jussieu en^ed^ in so dogmatically overruling 
the law of priority, thereby establishing a dangerous 
precedent. Secondly, he erred still more inexcu- 
sably in assuming the privilege of constituting him- 
self the corrector of Linni^us lia the matter of the 
formation of his generic names. Thirdly, Salisbury, 
Lamarck, Redout^, Endlicher, Meisner, and Kunth, 

have all erred to an equal or even greater extent in 
supporting him in this innovation, the consequences of 

which, as we have seen in the case of Willdenow's 

Hamiltonia^ and Don's Fl. Xepalensis, have been most 

( 24 ) 

Having thus, after a protracted and patient exam- 
ination, arrived at what I consider the rights of the 
case, I can no longer hesitate in adopting the Liu- 
nean name of his " vere gloriosus Jlos^'' as the only 
one, adjective though it be, having the slightest claim 
to be retained on the records of Botany. 

Having the subject of names and naming of plants 
in hand, I think I may as well go a step further and 
advert, but very briefly, to the unhappy state of the 
Indian Flora in having its nomenclature so overwhelm- 
ed with undefined names. Turn where we will we are 
sure to meet with them. This great evil I have 
endeavoured in the course of this M^ork to lessen by 
never in a single instance, knowingly, superseding 
an undefined name so long as I had the means of 
ascertaining correctly the plant to which it belonged- 
In all snch cases I have felt anxious to fix by defini- 
tion these floating names, for until defined they are 
no better. 

Having been thus careful to avoid any departure 
from the courtesies of the science, I trust that those 
who use this book may always bear in mind that 
" two things are necessary before a Botanical name 
can acquu'e authority, viz., definition and publica- 
tion," and not incautiously add to the existing almost 

insurmountable difficulties of unravelling our exceed- 
ingly perplexed synonyme by substituting, on the 
ground of priority, undefined names for defined ones. 
This I ask not for my own sake, but for that of my 
successors who become the sufferers. 

This request applies alike to all undefined names 
wherever they occur, whether in Wallich's list or 
Wight's Catalogue ; in Royle's or Wight's Illustrations, 
and Splcilegium, books which unavoidably abound 
in names, many of them undefined. Also to the lists 
now publishing in Germany, edited by Hohenacker 
which, I have reason to think, give new names to 
several plants, previously published in this work, and 
doubtless to many of those published in this and the 
preceding volume : in a word to all undefined names. 

In a work of this magnitude, and produced under 

circumstances so unfavourable to accuracy, by my 
being cut off from all intercourse with Botanists 
or books and named plants beyond what my own 
rather limited library and herbarium provided ; many 
errors must unavoidably have crept in : for such I 
a^k no mercy, but I do, and ever shall, protest against 

my definitions being transferred to the undefined 

names of others because theh' names happened to exist 
in a catalogue or printed book before my defined 
ones were published. 

The naturalist prizes the honor of naming the sub- 
jects he has studied and Is about to add to the Cata- 
logues of Natural History — it is usually his only rC" 
ward for his pains-taking labour — and, as the laborer 
is worthy of his hire, that credit ought not on any ac*- 
count, to be wrested from him, and still less^ when to 
be conferred, perhaps, on a person utterly incompe- 
tent either to examine or define, or what is about as 
bad, on one too idle or indifferent to do so for himself. 

One other subject remains to be veiy briefly ad- 
verted to. Universal practice, among the British 
residents of India, has fixed the orthography of the 
name of the neighbouring range of mountains which 
is now always written Neilgherry. In conformity 
with this spelling I, in latinizing the word for the 
formation of specific names of* plants, have merely 
altered the termination, writing it Nellgherrensis. 
The writers, however, of the German catalogues, 

above alluded to, apparently thinking themselves 
better acquainted than we are, with the pronuncia- 
tion and orthography of English words, take upon 
themselves to correct us, and therefore write the 
word Nilagiry and Xilagiricus, and have even, in at 
least one instance, altered our orthogi'aphy to make 
it suit their conceptions of what is right. Against 
this presumptuous liberty, I here enter my most un- 
qualified protest. We make no attempts to soften 
or amend the orthography of their, to us, harsh and 
often almost unpronounceable language, and neither 
ought they to venture on the task of attempting to 
adapt our softer and more flexible tongue to their 
pronouuciation. Nor ought we to tolerate such in- 

2047. Gloriosa superba (Linn., Methontca^ Jus- 
sieu, Endlicher, Meisuer, Kunth), leaves ccrriferous, 
the inferior ones oblong, the upper ones ovate lanceo- 
late : sepals lanceolate, waved their whole length. 

Coimbatore, Eastern slopes Xeilgherrics, Courtal- 
lum, &c., &c. Flowering during the autumnal months. 

I have taken the liberty of removing this genus 
from Liliacese, in which it is usually placed, to Uvula- 
riece and Melanthacem^ should these orders be again 
united. My attention was first called to the subject 
by Dr. Stocks of Bombay who had previously 
arrived at the same conclusion. After looking into 
the matter, comparing living specimens with the 
characters of the orders, I felt, and still feel, at a 
loss, how to account for this genus having been so 
long permitted to retain its place among the Lilies, 
especially after the removal of Uvularia, a genus so 
closely allied that nearly the same words chai*acterize 
both, with the exception of the revolute perianth* 

2048* DispoRUM Leschenaultianum (Donn.), 
umbels sessile, 3-5-flowered : sepals ovato-lanceolate, 
acute, gibbous at the base, filaments about twice the 
length of the anthers, dilated at the base : style 3-4 
times the length of the stigmas : leaves ovate, short 
petioled, acuminate. 

Neilgherries, frequent, especially about the outskirts 
of woods, flowering dmung the rainy season, July and 


In the accompanying plate I have represented two 
forms, one with drooping the other with erect flowers. 
It did not occur to me, when the drawings were 
made, to study cai-efully these forms with the grow- 
ing plants before me, and now I am unable with 
ceitainty to say whether I have combined 2 species 
or 2 varieties. Judging from dried specimens, they 
are vai-ieties only, but possibly in that I may be mis- 
taken. However, here are both forms, and will I 
hope induce future explorers to undertake the solu- 
tion of the question. 

2049. DispoRUM MTsoRENSE (R. W.), umbcIs 
3-4-flowered, terminal : sepals ovate, cuspidato-acu- 
minate, not gibbous at the base : filaments curved, not 
dilated at the base, shorter than the sagittate incurv- 
ed cuspidate anthers: style filiform, much longer 
than the short, almost inconspicuous, stigmas : leaves 
sub-sessile, broad, ovate, acuminate. 

Babenbodin Hills, Mysore, Cleghom. I only know 
this plant from dried specimens, for which I am in- 
debted to the kindness of Dr. Cleghorn. 


( 25 ) 

2049. DispoRUM Ceylanicum (R. W.)t umbels 
3-5 -flowered, terminal : sepals lanceolate acute or 
sub-acuminate, not gibbous at the base : filaments 
filiform, about twice the length of the oblong obtuse 
incumbent authers : style filiform 3-4 times the 
length of the revolute stigmas : leaves sessile, ovate, 
lanceolate, attenuate at the apex, acute, 

Ceylon. I am indebted to the late Colonel Walker 
for my specimens of this very distinct species* 

2050. Ophiopogon 

(R. W. 

leaves narrow linear, acute, soniewhat coriaceousj 
sheathhig at the base : scape naked, about half the 
length of the leaves, racemose, secund : bracts subu- 
late, shorter than the pedicels : flowers bell-shaped, 
sepals ovate, obtuse, longer than the filiform, acute, 
style : filaments short, cohering at the base, and 
with the sepals persistent: berries oval, pale blue 
when mature. 

Neilgherries, Courtallum, Mysore, &c. 

A widely diffused plant. I have taken the specific 
name from Royle's Illusti'atlons, where he mentions 
an " O. Indicus, Rottler," but without a reference to 
a character to enable me to ascertain whether this 

3 angular, short; stignias 3, spreading: seed naked, 
testa fleshy blue : embryo cylindrical at the base of 
copious albumen. 

Sispara, on the Western slopes of the Neilgherries, 
abundant by the road side and among the adjoining 
bushes, flowering January and February. 

2053* DiANELLA ENsiroLiA (Aitou), leaves nume- 
rous, long ensiform ; margin prickly serrulate ; keel 
rough at the base and apex : branches and branch- 
lets of the panicle spreading: pedicels crowded, 
drooping, nearly as long as the flower. 

Courtallum, Malabar Mountains. 

The figure which was taken from 


be his plant, hence the query. 

This genus and the following (Peliosantlies) are 
remarkable for bearing naked seed, that is the cells 
of the ovary do not enlarge with the gi'owth of the 
ovules, which in course of time burst the walls of 
the cells and are then matured not in a seed vessel 
but exposed to the direct action of air and light. 
The testa becomes progressively succulent, finally 
giving these naked seed, a berry-like look. Some- 
times the whole six ovules are matui'ed, producing 
clusters of bright blue berries as shown at fig. 7. 
Sometime several of them abort as I have endeavour- 
ed to show at fig. 6, when 2 of the ovules are repre- 
sented much larger that the adjoining aborted ones. 
When the whole attain maturity, as shown in figures 
7 and 8, the clusters of bright blue berries then form a 
very pretty object. Mr. Brown was, I believe, the 
first who understood and explamed this curious econ- 
omy of these plants. 

2051. Peliosakthes Colrtallensis (R. W.)t 

leaves very long petiolcd, lanceolate, acuminate, glab- is an Asparagus. 

specimen of a growing plant, does not give a very 
good idea of the species, but the analyses are more 
perfect than any I have seen of this genus. 

2054. Dracena terminalis (Willd.), stem fruti- 
cose, erect: leaves petioled, lanceolate, attenuated 
at both ends, stem-clasping at the base, glabrous : 
branches of the panicle divaricated, simple : flowers 
sessile, fascicled, 3-5 together, tubular, 6-cleft : fila- 
ments subulate ; anthers incumbent : seed globose : 
albumen large : embryo small, lateral. 

CourtalUim, Quilon, perhaps in both instances the 
outcast of a garden. I do not recollect having met 
with it in situations that left no doubt of its being 

2055. Asparagus Astaticus (Linn.), thorns soli- 
tary, recurved : stem erect, woody ; branches fili- 
form : leaves fascicled, subulate (setaceous), pedun- 
cles solitary. 

Ootacamund, Neilgherries, frequent, growing in 
open ground : smaller specimens are quite erect, the 
more luxuriant ones, such as that selected for repre- 
sentation, drooping towards the extremity. The 
above is the only station I recollect having met with 
this plant, but it must also inhabit the lower heights 
on the Malabar Coast whence I presume Linua?us 
obtained his specimens. Lamarck describes it, from 


plants gi'owing in the " Jardin du Koi." 
quotes Pluk. tab. 15, f. 4, for this plant, but as it is 
without flowers it may serve as well or better for 
the next. All indeed that can be said for it that it 

rous ; petiols rather shorter than the limb, triangular ; 

scape about the length of the petiols, subspicate: 
bracts subulate, as long as the flowers : perianth cam- 
panulate, 6-cleft, throat contracted by the antherife- 
rous crown (dilated monodelphous filaments) : anthers 
sessile, inserted within the margin of the crown: ovary 
3-celled, with 3 erect ovules in each, 1 or 2 of each 
usually abort. 

Courtallum, in dense woods, flowering February 
and i\Iarch. 

Figures 5 and 6 show the ovary in an advanced 
stage, but before the cells have given way ; figure 7 
after they have burst, and figure 8 in a somewhat 
more advanced stage of development. 

2052. Peliosanthes Xeilgherrexsis (R. W.), 
leaves lanceolate, tapering at both ends, acuminate ; 
limb about the length of the petiol : scape erect, race- 
mose, shorter than the leaves : flowers drooping, cam- 
panulate, 6-cleft: antheriferous crown (dilated fila- 
ments) 6 -parted (that is filaments six), short, dilated, 
inserted on the sepals : ovary 3-celled, ovules, usual- 

2056. Asparagus kacemosus (Willd.), thorns 
solitary, reflexed ; branches striated : leaves fascicled, 
linear, subulate, falcate, racemes many-flowered, 


Coimbatore district, frequent, climbing extensively 
among hedges, and bushes. When in full flower, 
which it is during the autumnal rains, it is a charm- 
ing plant, scenting the air for a considerable distance 
round with its delightful fragrance. 

The genus Asparagus is referred by most Botanists 
to Liliacete. I am unable to understand on what 
gi'ounds, as it associates so well with Smilax. 
Lindley excludes it from his class of Dictiogens, 
but, as it appears to me, on insuflScient grounds, as 
the leaves of those species in which they are more 
developed show the reticulated tendency, and the 
woodj^ structure of the stems of both is so perfectly 
alike that sections are scarcely distinguishable when 
lying side by side on the field of the microscope. 
For these reasons I have ventured to remove it from 
Liliaceffi and place It beside Smilax which I have 

ly, 4 in each cell ; soon rupturing the walls : style no doubt is its proper place in the natural series. 

C 26 ) 

5057-58. Smilax ZETLA^^lCA (Lmn.), stem scan- 
dent, obscurely 4-angled, beset, especially the male, 
with numerous small recurved prickles: leaves from 
cordato-ovate acuminate to sub-orbicular, abruptly 
retusely acuminate, 5-nerved ; the outer pair slender ; 

{)eduncles axillary, usually two, sometimes 3-umbeU 
ed: flowers longlsh pedicelled, male 6-androus, with- 
out rudimentary pistil : female with 3 rudimentary 

stamens opposite the outer sepals : berry globose, 

Neilgherries, Eastern slopes, frequent at an eleva- 
tion of from 4 to 6 thousand feet, climbing to a great 
extent over trees. In flower and fruit fi'om Septem- 
ber until I^ovember or December, 

2059. Smilax macclata (Royle), shrubby, scan- 
deut, angular, armed with numerous small prickles : 
leaves broad sub-reniform-cordate at the base, taper- 
ing to a blunt point, 7-nerved, racemes, male and 
female, axillary, flexuose, with the flowers fascicled 
on the flexures, short pedicelled ; female with six 
rudhnentary stamens. 

Eastern slopes of the Neilgherries, climbing exten- 

sively on trees. Berries red when ripe. 
2060, DioscoREA AcxTLiATA (Linu.), herbaceous, 

twining, glabrous, branches piped, 4- winged : wings 

narrow membranous : leaves opposite, deeply cor- 
date, 7-nerved, acuminate : male panicles axillary, 
branches fascicled, spiked, 4 to each pair of bracts, 
flexuose, with a single sessile flower on each flexure : 
interior sepals smaller, all obovate : ovary 3-celled 
with 2 superposed ovules in each, capsule 3-winged, 
seed winged. 

Malabar. My specimens are from Malabar where 
I gathered it in flower and young fruit in June. 

The representations of the mature capsule and seed 
in the plate are those of D, oppositifolta^ those of D. 
aculiata not being suSiciently ripe- 

RoxBUKGHiA. (Driander.) 

Gex. Chae. Perianth: sepals 4, linear lanceolate, 

acute. Stamens 4, opposite the sepals ,• filaments 
short, dilated ; connective produced far beyond the 
anthers, anther 2-cclIed, introrse ; cells large, dehiscing 
their whole length, each enclosing a pollen bag (endo- 
thecium), nearly as long as the cell : pollen bags fur- 
rowed along the suture ; persistent after dehiscence, 
the apex of each produced into a long flattened thread, 
which, converging and cohering with its fellow, forms 
a thin membranous lanceolate point (the nectary of 
Koxburgh), pollen farinaceous or, more correctly, 
something between waxy and farinaceous. " Germen 
(ovary) superior, cordate, compressed, 1 -celled ; 
ovules numerous, attached to the bottom of the cell, 
cordate. Style none, stigma pointed, capsule ovate, 
compressed, one-celled, 2-valved, opening from the 
apex. Seed 5-8, pedicelled, inserted on the bottom 
of the capsule, cylindrical striated : pedicels surround- 
ed with numerous small pellucid vesicles " Koxb. 

The description here given of the male organiza- 
tion of this genus is somewhat different from any 
hitherto proposed if I rightly understand them. Ac- 
cording to this description, the stamens of Roxhur* 
Ma represent, among monocotjdedons, the Asclepia- 
3eal structure. There the anther is two-celled with 
the pollen enclosed in a bag, the endothecium or lining 
of the anther ceU, There, as here, the endothecium 


the corpuscle and pollen mass. So far the analogy in 
the male structure of the two families is clear, but here 
they diveige, the endothecium of Asclepiadese seperat- 
ing entirely from the cell, and being removable with 
the pollen, while here it continues attached to the bot- 
tom of the cell. In Aficlepiade3e the pollen of two 
anthers converge to form the geminate pollen masses, 
here those of the two cells of the same anther are 
united. The remainder of the character I have taken 
from Roxburgh who examined and described the 
flower with most elaborate care, but evidently mis- 
understood its structure, a circumstance not much 

to be wondered at, considering the then imperfect 
knowledge of structural botany. Sir J. E. Smith 
gives the best description of the anthers I have seen: 
" Stamens, filaments 4, opposite the petals and nearly 
as long, awl-shaped, fleshy, with a double cell at 
their inner side near the base ; anthers 2-lobed» 
oblong, lodged in the cells of the filaments, each 
crowned with a simple lanceolate appendage." This 
description differs from mine in his viewing the con- 
nective as a 2-celled filament and the pollen as the 

This view of the structure of the stamen of this 
genus may perhaps lead to the determination of its 
affinities, a point as yet very imperfectly understood. 

When I wrote the above 1 had overlooked Griffith's 
paper in the Calcutta Journal, whose views nearly, I 
think, coincide with mine, a point I cannot now as- 
certain the volume being packed up and out of reach. 

206 1 . EoxBCBGHiA GLORiosoiDEs (Driaudcr) . 
Pulicat Hills at an elevation of about 2000 feet, flow- 
ering in August and September. The season at 
which I visited the station was a little too early, so 
that only a few flowers had opened and no fruit. 

2062. AsFHODELt's PArciFLORA (R, W.), leaves 

fistulous, long tapering, subulate-pointed : stems nak- 
ed, ramous : racemes terminal : flowei's small, short 
pedicelled : filaments filiform, glabrous, scarcely dilat- 
ed at the base : stigma subcapitate, undivided : seed 
somewhat triangular, ovate, blunt pointed. 

The station of this plant, the only Indian repre- 
sentative of the genus I have at hand, is not marked, 
but most probably was obtained from the light sandy 

soils of the sea coast. 

2063. Urgenia Tndica (Kuntb, Scilla Tndica, 
Roxb.), bulb tunicated: leaves narrow, and taper 
from the base: racemes simple, longer than the 
leaves: flowers remote, solitary, long pedicelled, 

di'ooping. Roxb. 

Sea coast, Tutichorin, March and April. 

Bulb white, about the size of an apple : leaves radi- 
cal, ensiform, flat, glabrous, from 6 to 18 inches long. 
When in bloom the plant Js perfectly destitute of 
leaves. Scape erect, round, naked : raceme long, 
erect, flowers remote, long pedicelled, di-oopiug, pedi- 
cels filiform, bract most minute, caducous : sepals 
linear, equal, filaments filiform. Capsules, elliptic, 
many-seeded; seed compressed, orbiculai*, broadly 
winged, bright shining black : embryo length of the 

seed, axile. 
The above description of the plant is taken from 

Roxbm'gh, that of the capsule and seed from speci- 
mens now before me. 

2064. Urgeota Coromanbrliana (R. W., Scilla 


is prolonged: forming in them the connection between Coromandeliana ? Roxb. ?), leaves linear, tapermg to 


( 27 ) 

ttie point, shorter than the scape : racemes erect, 
flowers short pedicelled, supported by a rather large 
scariose bract as long as the pedicel : sepals ovato- 
lanceolate, all equal, and beardless : style about the 
length of the stamens, capitate : capsule large, obso- 
lelely 3-angled, 3-sided, seed obovate, orbicular, com- 
pressed, winged, shining black. Embryo about the 
length of the albumen- 
Sea Coast, station not stated. 
This differs in some respects from Roxburgh*s 
description, which unfortunately does not include any 
account of the capsule and seed ; I however, believe 
it is his plant. 

2064. Urgenia. congesta (R. W.), leaves linear 
subulate, about the length of the scape : scape erect, 
naked, raceme short, compact : flowers short pedi- 
celled, supported at the base by a short broadish 
obtuse scariose bract : sepals lanceolate, the inner 
slightly smaller : ovary conical : capsule sub-obovate 
or globose, 3-celled : cells few- (3-4) seeded : seeds 

orbicular, bound all round by a broad wing, shining 

Sea Coast, Malabar ? station not mentioned. 

The specimens from which these drawings are taken 
were not collected by me, hence the want of stations. 
They are all referable to the very modern genus 
Urgenia which was separated from Scilla on account 
of its numerous much compressed, not few globose, 
seeds, which is its distinguishing chai'acteristic. 


This, in the most favourable circumstances, is a 
difficult order to deal with as regards the discrimina- 
tion of species, and in giving representations of the 

flower can only be done justice to from growing 

plants, hence I infer om* comparatively Imperfect 
acquaintance with its species- Having myself often 
experienced this difficulty, I think it will be doing 
a service, if I can, by giving representations of a 
considerable number, lighten the labours of others, 
who may wish to undertake their investigation. It 
is rather unfortunate that I delayed entering on 
their examination until this late date, as I have left 
myself neither the time nor room required to do 
them full justice, and what is worse, I have been 

constrained to take many of my drawings from dried 
plants in place of fresh ones. This I regret, but 
such is now my position that it is unavoidable, unless 
I leave them undone. I have, however, endeavoured 
to compensate for this defect, by greater care, espe- 
cially as regards the analysis. In spite, however, of 
all my care, the relative sizes of parts, as shown in the 
magnified flowers, will sometimes be found defective 
as in several instances they were necessarily taken 
from young flowers artificially opened, and before 
the petaloid series had attained their full develop- 
ment, but the forms in these cases were as accurately 
preserved as it was possible, so that I trust no very 
striking discrepancy between the drawing and fresh 
flower will in any case be found, and as regards the 
outline of the plant I believe it is generally un- 
exceptionable. My materials for illustrating the order 
are so considerable that I could easily have nearly 
doubled the number of subjects represented, I may 
here mention, for the encouragement of parties who 
may have an opportunity of collecting specimens, that 
I have learned in the course of their investigation, 

than I previously supposed possible, and would there- 
fore urge their collection, as I feel quite convinced 
that the order is much richer in species than the 
latest publications would lead one to suppose. Rox- 
burgh in his Flora Indica only describes 13, a very 
small number, and only to be accounted for by the 
insufficiency of the characters, as known at the time 
he wrote, for their discrimination. 

At that time all the Indian species, indeed nearly 
the whole order, were grouped under two genera ; one, 
Commelyna^ having half the stamens sterile, the other, 
Tradscantia^ having them all fertile and the filaments 
bearded. Brown struck off from the former, his 
genus Aneilema, and subsequently Don his Cyanotis 
from the latter. These separations, especially the 

first, gave greater precision to the generic characters, 

and have been followed since then by the addition of 
several well-defined genera. 

Aneilema has already become so over-gi'own (Kunth 
enumerates 60 species) that it now requires sub-divi- 
sion. This I have attempted In my genus Dictyo- 
spermum^ on the principle that, as in the true Anei- 
lemas, the calycine series of stamens are fertile and 
the petaline sterile, so a departm'e from that arrange- 
ment, indicates such a change of structure as to jus- 
tify generic separation where it occurs. In Dictyo- 
spermum the anterior petaline stamen is polleniferous 
and fertile, and the other two usually suppressed 
along with the posterior calycine one. This is the 
arrangement observed in Cominelyna^ which has 6 
stamens divided into 2 sets, 3 anterior fertile, 3 pos- 
terior sterile, not, as in Aneilema, alternately fertile 
and sterile. 

This arrangement of the stamens enables us to 
divide the genera struck oft' from the old genus Com- 
melyna into two well defined groups, viz., anterior or 
petaline stamen, fertile, CommelyncBy all the petaline 
stamens sterile, Aneilem<s. Stamens all fertile and 
anthers conformable, Tradescantece. 

Following out that grouping, we have for the first, 

Commelynay Heterocarpus^ Aclesia^ T. inantia, Dictyo' 
spermum and Dichorisandra ? ; for the second Anei- 
Icmuy and Dichspermum^ and for the third, Callesia^ 
Polliay Lamprocarpjis^ Dithyrocarpus^ Tradescantia^ 
Spironemay Cyonotis, and Cartonema. I have separat- 
ed Dichspermum from Aneilema^ on the ground of its 

having two rows of seed in each cell, all the other 
species having one only. This I believe forms a 
good generic distinction. Heterocarpus is in like 
manner separated from Commelyna on account of 
difference of its fruit. In Commelyna the capsule 
is 3-celled, in Ileterocarpus it is reduced to one, the 

other two aborting and shrivelling into a podocarp, 
to which the fertile indehiscent cell adheres. Of the 
propriety of constructing a genus on such grounds 

I feel less confident than on either of the preceding 
instances, but still I think it a good genus, the more 
so, as it does not rest on a solitary species, and is 
moreover strengthened by the circumstance of the 
two anterior sepals being connate. 

I may here remark that Kunth in his Enumeratio, 

describes the fertile stamens of Commelyna and others 
of that group as posterior, while I describe them 
as anterior. I do not know how he views the flower, 
but I look at it from behind, and finding the odd 
sepal next the axis call it posterior and as a matter 
of course, the odd petal, being on the opposite side 
of the flower, must be anterior. In regard to the 

that much more can be done with dried specimens lobesof the perianth, I may remark that, theoretically, 

C 28 ) 

both rows are sepals, the exterior calychic, the inte- 
rior petaloid. I do not object to the theory, but its 
practical application is sometimes rather inconveiiicnt. 
In such cases I have adopted tiie okl nomenchitui-c, 
calling the outer scries calyx or sepal aud the inner 
petals. This dei)artare from strictly philosophical 
language can lead to no inconvenience as the aspect 
of the parts fnlly justify the proceeding. 

2065. CoMMELTNA Bengalknsis (Liuu.), stem 
ramous, creeping, pilose : leaves petioled, ovate, ellip- 
tic, subcordate at the base, acutish, puberuluus on 
both sides, the hairs scattered and longer above ; 
sheaths pilose, ciliate at the throat ; cilia? long, brown- 
ish ; spathes short pcdunclcd, cucuUate (top-shaped,) 
acute, pubescent and pilose : peduncles paired, one 
iucluse, 2-flo\vered, flowers hermaphrodite ; the other 
cxserted, roughish, one-flowered,- flower male : sepals 
glanduloso-llueolate ; the odd interior one (anterior 
petal) sessile, lanceolate. 

Common all over India — frequent about Coimba- 
tore. The plant selected for representation is an 
unusual form, the roots being apparently tuber-bear- 
ing. This, however, is in appearance only, the appa- 
rent tubers being in truth under ground flowers. 

The plants grew in a light soil and had been sev- 
eral times disturbed by the plough. On pulling up 
one, finding the roots covered with these tubers I exa- 
mined one and in place of a solid tuber found, on 
opening the enclosing spathe, that it contained a 
flower. This induced me to make the accompanying 
drawing, viewing the circumstance as a curious and 
unusual provision of nature to preserve a species 
which under its circumstances was in a fair way of 
being destroyed. The figures in the accompanying 
analysis marked with a cross (-f ) appertain to the 
root flowers. 


2066. CoMMELTNA POLTSPATHA (R. W.), hcrba- 
ceous, erect, leaves long lanceolate acuminate, glabrous 
on both sides, paler beneath, sheaths with a line of 
hairs on one side, setosely hairy on the maigln and 
throat : spathes terminal, 4-8 together, collateral, 
turbinate, glabrous : pedicel solitary, enclosed, 4-5- 

flowered: capsule glabrous, 3-celled ; cells 1-scoded; 
seed oval, obtuse at both ends ; hilum linear : embryo 

Bolamputty Mountains near Coimbatore, at an ele- 
vation of about 3000 feet, frequent, flowering in 

The flower of this species seems so exactly 'the 
same as that of C. Bengalensis, with the exception of 
a slight difference in size, that the one might almost 
be substituted for the other. The peduncle in this 
does not divide within the spathe, hence all the 
flowers seem to be hermaphrodite. 

Heterocarpus. (R. W.) 

Gen. Char. Flowers irregular : Perianth six- 
parted : 3 exterior lobes calycine, 3 interior petaloid : 
anterior calycine lobes obovate, obtuse, connate to 
near the apex, much larger than the posterior : ante- 
rior petaloid lobesubsessile, obovate, spathulate, lateral 
ones unguiculatc. Stamens 6, filaments glabrous : 
3 anterior anthers poUcniferous, the middle one some- 
what deformed — 3 posterior sterile. Ovary 3-celletI; 
2 posterior cells minute, empty, afterwards changing 
into a rigid curved podocarp, anterior larger one 

ovuled, capsule 1 -celled, attached by a groove on the 
back to the podocarp, iudohiscent. Seed one, oval, 
cmbi'yo lateral. 

Diffuse, herbaceous, ramous plants. Lcavcssheath- 
ing, entire: peduncles springing from the sheaths, 
filiform, forked at the apex within the spathe : pos- 
terior branch much longer, exsei-tcd, bearing on the 
point a single male flower; anterior incluse, recurved, 
4-5-flowered. Spathes cordate, acuminate, folded, 
sub -coriaceous, ciliate. Flowers yellow. 

2067- Heterocarpus uirsutus (R. W,), diffuge, 
everywhere pilose especially on the sheaths and un- 
der surfaces of the leaves : sheaths long : leaves linear 
lanceolate acute: spathe long acuminate, ciliate at 
the base.— Tlie aspect of the plant apart from the 
inflorescence is much that of a hairy grass. 

Ncilghcrries, among bushes, flowering August and 

2067. Heterocarpcs gt-abkr (R, W.), procum- 
bent, diffuse, rooting at the joints, glabrous, except 
decun-ent lines of short hairs from the insertions of 
the leaves and slightly pilose sheaths, leaves lanceo- 
late obtuse, glabrous, sheaths short, pubescent : pe- 
duncles about the length or a little longej* than the 
leaves, filiform, involucre cordate, acuminate, ciliate at 
the base. — Flowers deep orange yellow. 

Paulghaut jungles and Bolamputty Hills, in moist 
soil, flowering October and November, 

I have endeavoured in vain to refer either of these 
plants to any described species of Commelyna, the 
only genus to which I think they could have been 

2068. Aclisia Ixbica (R. W.), stem erect, sim- 
ple, and with the panicle pubescent : leaves sheathing 
at the base, petioled, ovato-lanceolate, taperingly 
acuminate, acute, glabrous, except the pctiol and 
sheath (10-12 inches long by two or 3 broad): pani- 
cle long peduncled, loose ; branches racemose, spread- 
ing or slightly reflexcd : petals obovato-orbicular, 
larger than the sepals : fruit globose, indehiscent, fra- 
gile, smooth, shining, pale blue, cells 8-sccded in two 
rows: seed flattened, depressed over the embryo, 

Malabar, Ceylon, Western slopes of the Neilgher- 
ries, flowering dmung the rainy season. 

This species seems very different fi'om the only 
other known species of the genus, A. scorzogonensis^ 
from Lugon Island, and so fai' as I can judge from 
specimens in fruit only, is a very handsome plant. 

The flowering specimen is imperfect, most of the 
flowers having follon off in drying. The little flower- 
ing branch is to some extent fictitious, a flower being 
supplied to each empty bract to show what it ivS 
when in full flower, 



Gen. Char. Perianth six-parted, 3 exterior lobes 
calycine, the interior petaloid, all marcescent. Stamens 
3 (rarely 5) all feitile, the middle one opposite the 
odd petal, slightly dissimilar: when 5, two sterile 
opposite the lateral petals, ovary 3-cclled, with 1 

ovule in each : ovule attached to the middle of the 

axis, horizontal ; style filiform, stigma capitate. Cap- 
sule 3-ceIIcd, 3-valvcd; valves scptiferous. Seed 
solitary, oblong, somewhat convex, reticulate on the 
back. Embryo lateral (not opposite the hilum). 


( 29 } 

Albumen horny white. — Herbaceous erect plants. 
Stems simple, leaves sheathing at the base, entire. 

Inflorescence panicled, terminal : flowers solitary, or 
two or three aggregated in a short sheathing bract, 
pedicelled ; filaments beardless. 

This genus approaches Aclisia and Commelyna in 
the position of its stamens, the middle fertile one 
being opposite the odd petal, and differs from Anei' 
lema in Avhich all the fertile stamens are opposite the 
calycine lobes of the perianth. 


lema montana^ R. W., in Wall. List), erect : leaves 
longishpetioled, lanceolate, acuminate, round, glabrous 
except on tlic margins; sheaths pubescent, truncated: 
panicle lax, terminal; branches slender, bearing a 
few flowers on the extremities : petals somewhat 
larger than the sepals: petaliue stamen modified, 
filament longer and cells of the anther somewhat di- 
varicated : styles simple, stigma capitate, capsule glo- 
bose, smooth, shining, papery, fragile : seed corru- 
gately reticulate on the back, 

Courtallum, Neilgherries, Eastern slopes, in damp 

thcr diffuse : bracts minute, exterior perianth (sepals) 
lanceolate acute ; interior (petals), obovate or subor- 
bicular : filaments all bearded : capsule 3-cclled with 
several, 3-4, seed in each: seed angular, smooth, de- 
pressed above. 

Western slopes, Neilgherries. 

A very distinct and handsome species, which does 
not seem liable to be confounded with any of the 
others. Leaves about 6 inches long, by 2 broad, 
capsule coriaceous, glistening, whitish, scarcely ex- 
ceeding the persistent sepal. 


shady woods and on the banks of streams. 

The Neilgherry plant* difiers slightly, 
are less waved, broader in the middle in proportion 
to their length, and shorter petioled, but in other res- 
pects both correspond. 


erect : leaves sheathing, short petioled, oval, acumi- 
nate, acute, nerved ; shortly pubescent on both sides : 
panicles terminal, sessile, compact, many-flowered : 
flowers short pedicelled, at length drooping : sepals 
and petals about equal, orbicular : filament of the 
petaline stamen longer than the others, at length 
spirally convolute : anthers all similar : style short, 
stigma simple: capsule obsoletely 3- angled, smooth, 
shining, brittle : seed oblong, reticulate on the back. 

Neilgherries, Western slopes. This species turns 
black in drying. 

2071. DicTrosPERMUM PROTEXSUM (R. W. Anei* 
lema protensa^ Wall. List, 5218), erect, pubescent : 
leaves vaginate, sessile, lanceolate, acuminate ; sheaths 
loose, subtruncted, ciliate and like the upper surfiice of 
the leaves sprinkled with bristly hairs : panicles axil- 
lary and terminal, long peduncled ; branches sub-um- 
bellato-racemose: flowers pedicelled, 2 or 3 aggregat- 
ed in the axils of cucullate bracts : sepals and petals 
about equal, shorter than the stamens ; filaments slen- 
der filiform : anther of the petaline stamen larger : 
two sterile stamens : style filiform, stigma capitate : 
capsule pedicelled, hispid, unequal-sided. 

Courtallum, Ceylon, Nepaul. 

This is a widely distributed species. I have now 
specimens from Nepaul, Courtallum, and Ceylon, and 
I think I once met with it on the Neilgherries, but 
very sparingly and scarcely in flower. 

In naming the drawing, I had an opportunity of 
comparing my own with Xcpaul specimens, received 
from Dr. Wallich, which perfectly correspond with 
the Peninsular ones. 

2072. Aneilema latifolium (R, W.), erect, glab- 
rous : leaves sessile, broad ovate, cordate, stem clasp- 

2073. Aneilema scapifloea (R. W., Commehpia 
scapijlora, TXoxb.y An. tuherosa? Ham., Wall. List, 
Murdania scapijlnraf Royle), perennial, glabrous; 

leaves all radical, sheathing at the base, ensiform, 
somewhat waved on the marghi : scapes panicled, re- 
motely jointed, furnished at the joints with a some- 
what scariose sheath, branchlcts of the panicle spring- 
ing from the axil of a short pointed sheath, 6-10-flow- 

cred : flowers pedicelled, bracteate : sepals lanceolate 
acute, petiols broad obovate or sub-orbicular : stamens 
6, three fertile ; lobes of the sterile anthers globose, 

divaricating; all the filaments bearded : capsule ob- 
the leaves long, 3-celled ; cells 4-seeded : seed angular, smooth. 

Courtallum, flowering September. 

My drawing is taken from a dried specimen with 
fruit, generally, nearly mature and does not therefore 
give a good idea of the flowering plant. Neither 
Roxburgh nor Royle mentions the fruit, though the 
latter constitutes this a new genus. Royle's figure 
does not much resemble mine, but the difference seems 
to depend on his Ijeing younger and a less luxuriant 
form. The open flower of my drawing is taken from 
an unopened one, and may not represent the correct 
proportions of the parts as seen in naturally opened 
ones, but if they do represent the correct proportions, 
it seems to me this can scarcely be Roxburgh's plant, 
as he distinctly mentions the petals being longer than 
the calyx. The inflorescence too seems different, that 
of mine being properly a panicle, while he calls his a 
raceme, but describes it as having " branchlets," thus 
showing that it has the elements of a panicle, only 
wanting luxuriance to develope it, as shown in my 


2074. Aneilema ensifolia (R. W.), perennial ? 
erect, ramous, glabrous, jointed: leaves very long, 
narrow, sword-shaped, slightly sheathing and stem- 
clasping at the base (12-19 inches long, ^ to | broad) : 
primary branches of the panicle (3-4) umbellate, 
branched : branches secundly racemose towards the ex- 
tremities : flowers fiiscicled, 3-4 together in the axil 
of a large obovate caducous bract, opening -in suc- 
cession: sepals ovate somewhat boat-shaped : petals 
broad obovate or sub-orbicular, filaments all bearded : 
sterile anthers auricled ; capsule ovoid, 3-celled, with 
3 rough angulai" seeds in each- 

Courtallum, Ceylon. 

The roots, judging from one of my specimens, are 
thick and succulent, apparently perennial. The 
stems seem to rise to the height of 4 or 5 feet, the 
whole plant glabrous. The umbellate Inflorescence 
added to the caducous tendency of the flowers, Jeav- 

a long line of prominent scars along one side of 
the floriferuus branches, form a peculiar and striking 
feature which I have only met with in one other spc- 


ing, acute, netted beneath, when dry, with brown 

veins; sheaths short, glabrous: panicles terminal, ra- cies. See next plate. 

C 30 ) 


2075. Aneilema secunda (R. AV.)> stems pro- 
cumbent at the base, ascending, glabrous, leaves dis- 
tant, glabrous, sheathing, sessile, linear lanceolate, ta- 
pering to a slender point ; sheaths slightly pubescent, 
ciliate : panicles terminal and axillary, long pedun- 
cled: branches racemose, slender, cernuous : flowers 
numerous towards the apex, secnnd, furnished with a 
large boat-shaped membranous caducous bract : se- 
pals 3, ovato-lanceolate : petals larger, sub-orbicular 
(blue) : stamens 6, two fertile, 3 with effete anthers, 
and the posterior one rudimentary, but with the fila- 
ment bearded: filaments of the 2 fertile stamens 
bearded. Ovary 3-celled, 2 ovules in each : style 
and stigma simple : capsule 3-celled with 1 or 2 seed 
in each. 

Anamallay forests, Belgaum, flowering August and 

2075. Aneilema paniculata (R. W., an Herb. 
Wight in Wall. List, 5216 ?), erect, ramous, glabrous, 
except the ciliate margin of the sheath : leaves succu- 
lent, sheathing, sessile, ovato-lanceolate, blunt pointed, 
margined with a narrow diaphanous purplish edging : 
panicles axillary and terminal, peduncles slender, 
somewhat dichotomously branched : flowers pedicelled, 
at first aggregated on the points of the branches, but 
opening in succession, sepals lanceolate about half the 
size of the obovate obtuse petals : fertile filaments 
bearded about twice the length of the nearly beard- 
less sterile ones, capsule 3-celled with 3-5 superposed 
angular seed in each. 

Courtallum, Bolamputty, Neilgherries, flowering 
during the rainy season, very like in habit and appear- 
ance Dichcespermiim lanceolatum^ but at once distin- 
guished by the capsule. 

2076. Aneilema vaginata (R. B., Wall. List 
5212 B!), procumbent, diffuse, rooting at the joints, 

glabrous : leaves sheathing at the base, linear : pe- 
duncles lateral and terminal, enclosed in a sheath, 1- 
flow^ered ; but sometimes 3 flowers from one common 
sheath : sepals lanceolate : petals orbicular, 2 stamens 
fertile^ 4 sterile antherless, all the filaments glabrous : 
capsule orbicular, 3-celled ; cells one-seeded : oval 
compressed, somewhat rugous on the margin, depress- 
ed on the back. 

The drawing is taken from a specimen named as 
above, received from Dr. Wallicb, hence is certainly 
his plant. Kunth quotes it with a doubt as to its 
being Brown's species which is said to have bearded 
filaments, in this specimen they are beardless. 

2076. Aneilema terminalis (R. W.), procum- 
bent at the base, afterwards ascending : leaves sword- 
shaped, glabrous : sheath short, loose, ciliate on the 
margin : floriferous branches few from the upper axils, 
bearing on the apex a fascicle of close-set short pe- 
duncled flowers : sepals ovate obtuse, petals orbicular: 
stamens 2 fertile, 4 sterile : filaments of the perfect 
stamens bearded: capsule 3-celled with 2 seed in each 
attached to the middle of the axis (ascending and de- 
scending) seed roughish, embryo lateral. 

Ncilgherries. This seems veiy distinct from all 
the described species, but accords both in habit and 
structure of the flowers with the preceding, from 
which, however, it is a widely distinct species. The sus^ hence the name, 
relative size of the sepals and petals cannot be relied 

2077, Aneilema nana (Kunth, Commehjna nanay 
Roxb.), creeping : leaves cordato-lanceolate, stem- 
clasping: flowers terminal, somewhat panicled, petals 
equal : capsule 3-celled, many-seeded. Roxb. Cells 
3-5 -seeded, seed angular or somewhat cylindiical, 

Courtallum, Malabar, Coimbatorc, in low wet soil. 

This species,like all common and widely distributed 
plants, presents considerable variations m form, but 
they generally correspond in the outline, however much 
they may vary in size. Tt greatly resembles, except 
in habit, A. paniculata^ but differs in the sterile sta- 
mens being beardless, while they are bearded in the 
other. The capsule in both is much alike, the cells 
containing from 3 to 5 seed. 

2077. Aneilema pauciflora (R, W.), creeping, 

glabrous, except a line of hairs decurrent from the 
sheaths: leaves sheatliing, cordato-ovatc, obtuse, 
slightly waved on the margin, stem-clasping; flowers 
axillary, solitary or paired, opening in succession, 
longish pednncled, sepals linear obtuse, petals obovate, 
exceeding the sepals, filaments all glabrous, fertile 
stamens about twice the length of the sterile ones, 
capsule oblong pointed, cells about 5-seeded in a 
single row. 

Quilon, Paulghaut, &c., in moist soil, flowering in 
October. This is a very distinct species, not likely 
to be mistaken for any other. 


Gen. Char. Perianth 6-parted, 3 exterior lobes 
calycine, 3 interior petaloid. Stamens 6 (filaments 
bearded or glabrous), 3 calycine fertile, 3 petaline 
sterile. Ovary 3-celled; style simple, stigma capi- 
tate. Capsule 3-valved, 3-celled; valves septiferous: 
2 rows of superposed seed in each cell. Seed angu- 
lar, smooth. Embryo depressed in the middle of the 
back. — Small herbaceous erect or procumbent ramous 
plants. Leaves scarcely sheathing. Inflorescence 
panicled, terminal ; or axillary and lateral. Flowers 
blue, seed when dry brownish. 

In addition to the three species represented in the 
accompanying plate, I have what seems to be 4 
others, two referable to the lanceolatum form, and two 

the juncoides. It is possible these may be varieties 
only, but if so, they are very distinct ones. 


procumbent at the base, rooting, afterwai'ds erect, 
glabrous : leaves linear lanceolate bluntish : panicles 
terminal, racemose, branches flexuose : pedicels from 
the axils of loose cucullate bracts : all the filaments 
hairy near the base: capsule oblong, three-celled, 
each cell containing about 20 seed in two rows. 
Malabar, about Quilon, in marshy soil. 

2078. DicHiESPERMUM JUNCOIDES (R. W.), ercct, 
ramous; leaves linear subulate, glabrous, panicles few- 
flowered, axillary and terminal : filaments all glab- 
rous, capsule oval obtuse, 3-celled: cells 6-8'Seeded, 

in 2 rows. 

Courtallum, Quilon. 

This species reminds one of some of the more 

diminutive forms of Junciis lampocarpjis or uligruo- 

on in these figures, the drawing of the open flower 
being in both taken from unopened buds. 

2078. DiCH<ESPERMUM REPENs (R. W.), procum- 
bent, rooting at the joints, glabrous except a decur- 




( 31 ) 


rent line of hairs from the insertions of the leaves, ing Avas made. I shall somewhat abridge Mr. Edgc- 
leaves scarcely sheathing, sessile, ovato-lanceolate, 
sub-acute : flowers axillary, two or three from each 
axile, filaments glabrous, capsule ovate, cells about 8- 
seeded, in 2 rows. 
Quilon, October to December, In low wet gi'ound. 


ceuding, sparingly ramous : leaves sheathing, elliptico- 
lanceolate acute, tapering at the base into a longish 
petiol ; sheath inflated, ciliate on the margin : panicle 
terminal; branches racemose, flowers secund and, 
with the rachis, villous, 

Neilgherries. I am still uncertain whether I ought 
to consider this a distinct species or a mere form of 
D, Rothiu All the three species here represented are 
very like, and if really species prove this to be a 
very natural genus, but still the differences seem such 
as to preclude their being united, certainly not until 
we have had opportunities of studying them better 
than I have had it in my power to do. The Anei- 

lema hispida of Wallich's list certainly belongs to 

this genus, 


2080. DiTHYROcARPus RoTHii (R: W., Tvades' 
cantia paniculata^ Roth, not Roxb.), stem creeping at 
the base, erect at the apex ; leaves sheathing, lanceo- 
late, acuminate ; sheaths ciliately woolly : panicle 
terminal, somewhat globose, compact ; branches race- 
mose, many-flowered, densely villous, viscid, anterior 
petal much narrower, sub-spathulate : filaments glab- 
rous: stigma obtuse: capsule 2-ceUed, with a single 
sub-lenticular seed in each, 

I^eilgherries, Ceylon ? Roth remarks that his plant 
does not correspond with Roxburgh's figure, but I 
think his description corresponds with mine ; which 
is certainly not Roxbui'gh's plant, so far at least as 
can be made out from his figure and description. 
The figure differs in the form of the leaves and 
sheath (which is woolly on the margin), in the com- 
position of the panicle, which as shown by him is 
distinctly compound, each branch panicled, while in 
mine they are racemose. In his the calyx is said 

worth's description of the plant which is very full. 
Glabrous, twining ; stems rooting at the base : leaves 
cordate acuminate, long petiolcd ; petiols sheathing 
at the base ; sheaths truncated, ciliate : racemules 
axillary and terminal, 2-6-flowered : floral leaves 
becoming modified, losing their sheaths, the petiols 
shortening or disappearing and the limb changing to 
cordato-ovate, acute or folded: upper flower of the 
raceme often sterile :. bracts lanceolate, delicately 
membranous: three exterior lobes of the perianth 
elliptic acutish ; interior ones linear, a little dilated at 
the apex : stamens six, filaments bearded, with yellow 
hairs above the middle ; anthers versatile, cells hori- 
zontally divaricated : ovary tapering into the style ; 
stigma capitate, puberulous : capsule ovate, 3-celled, 
3-valved; cells 2-seeded: seed slightly angular, ru- 
gosely furrowed. 

This genus differs but little except in habit from 
Tradescantia, The perianth is the same with the 
exception of the petals being smaller than the sepals 
and the filaments in both are bearded and all the 
anthers poUeniferous. The form of the anthers how- 
ever is peculiar in so far as they resemble in form 
the sterile anthers of Aneileraas. The habit is very 
distinct, and, added to the above differences, well 
entitles this plant to form the type of a distinct 

genus. It ranks between Aneilema and Tradescan- 
fta rather than between Tradescantia and Cyajwtis 
on "account of the anthers forming au easy transition 
from the one to the other- 

to be simply hairy while here it is shaggy and viscid. 
I cannot so well compare the flowers as my drawin 

is made from a dried plant, and may not be so cor- 
rectly represented as in his. Roth describes the cap- 
sule as S-celled, perhaps a typographical error^ 

2080. DlTHYROCARl*U8 UXDULATUS (R- W.), aS- 

2082, Cyaxotis cristata (Ra?m. andSch., Com- 
melyim cristata^ Lin., not Burm. Fl. Ind. tab. 7- f. 4. 
Tradescantia mhricata? Roxb.), lower part of the 
stem diffuse, creeping; floriferous extremities ascend- 
ing or erect, marked with attenuate pubescent lines 
decurrent from the sheaths of the leaves and sprinkled 
with long hairs : leaves sessile, succulent, ovato-lan- 
ceolate, glabrous, slightly ciliate : spikes terminal, 
secund, progres;?ively lengthening from 2 to 12-15 

pairs of bracts : bracts lanceolato-falcate, imbricate, 

each supporting a flower : flowers small, scarcely cx- 

serted, sepals lanceolate acute, pubescent, petals con- 
nate to near the apex, limb obtuse : stamens scarcely 
exserted, filaments simple, bearded : style glabrous : 
stigma capitate : capsule ovate, cells 2-seeded- 

Bolamputty Hills, frequent in woods, flowering 
November and December. I have extended the 

cending : leaves ovato-lauceolate, acuminate, waved character of this plant under the impression that 

on the margin, sheathing : sheaths large inflated, the 
throat thickly beset with coarse bristly hairs : pani- 
cles terminal, branches racemose : calyx shaggy, vis- 
cid, lobes obovate obtuse : odd petal narrow obtuse 
sub-cuniate : style filiform, curved : stigma simple : 
capsule 2-celle(i, 2-seeded. 

Station. I am uncertain whence T obtained this 
plant. It is nearly allied to the preceding, but I think 
certainly distinct, its whole aspect being so different. 
The leaves and sheaths externally are glabrous, but 
a line of hairs extends dowu the stem from the 
woolly margins of the sheaths. 

2081. Streptolirion volbvile (Edgeworth, Lin- 
nean Trans.) 

I am uncertain now whence I obtained the plant 
from which the drawing was taken, but I think from 
Assam, about 15 years ago, at which time the draw- 

more than one species is confused under this name. 
My plant seems to correspond sufficiently well with 
Linnaeus' figure in the Flora Zcylanica, but not with 
Burmann's, in the Flora Indica, of which also, I think, 
I have specimens, a figure of which is given in plate 

No. 2088. 

2083, Ctaxotis pii-osa (Rajm. and Sch,, Trades- 
cantia pilosa, Willd. Herb.), stems scapose, procum- 
bent, spreading, somewhat branched and, with sheaths 
and under surface of the leaves, more or less floccose : 
radical leaves long linear, obtuse, villoso -ciliate : stem 
leaves like the radical ones, but smaller : spikes ter* 
minal, secund, aggregated, few-flowered : bracts fal- 
cate, calvx woolly, lobes lanceolate acute, filaments 
densely bearded,'' not tumid at the apex: ovary 
pilose ; stylo bearded : stigma clavate : capsule small, 
cells 2-seeded. 


( 32 ) 

Neilgherries, flowering at all seasons : very fre- 
quent, from an elevation of about 6000 feet and 
upwards. This species principally differs from C. 

tnherosa (which in habit it greatly resembles^, in the 

filaments not being tumid at the apex, and the style 
being as densely bearded as the filaments while it 
is glabrous in tuberosa^ and in the aggregated few- 
flowered spikes. 

2084. Cyanotis longifolia (R. W.), leaves radi- 
cal, ensiform, pubescently ciliate on the margin : stems 
scapose, branched with a villous line decurrent from 
the sheaths : floriferous branches axillary, solitary 
or aggregated, from the loose sheathing axils of large 
common, bracts : spikes lateral and terminal, imbri- 
cated ; when lateral furnished with a common bract ; 
partial bracts falcate, vIUoso -ciliate : calycine lobes 
of the perianth lanceolate acute, pubescent ; limb of 
the petaloid ones broad obovate, glabrous : filaments 
long slender, flexuose, densely bearded near the apex : 
style length of the stamens, glabrous : stigma clavate : 
capsule small (not half the length of the calyx), sub- 
globose, pilose on the apex, 3-celled : cells 2-seeded, 
seed angular, depressed-punctuate. 

Bolamputty Hills, near Coimbatore, flowering No- 
vember and December. 

I was only fortunate enough to obtain one or two 
plants of this noble species and not so perfect in 
regard to the radical leaves as I could have wished. 



first procumbent, afterwards ascending or erect, round, 
succulent : leaves shortly sheathing, succulent, ovato- 
lanceolate, acute, slightly villous beneath, ciliate : a 
line of hairs decurrent from the sheaths : spikes axil- 
lary within the sheaths, few-flowered : bracts lanceo- 
late acute : calycine lobes lanceolate, acute : petals 
scarcely connate, obovate obtuse, scarcely exceeding 
the calyx : filaments filiform, bearded above the mid- 
dle : style filiform : stigma simple : capsule obovate, 
pubescent on the apex, much shorter than the sepals, 
3-celled; cells 2-seeded : seed somewhat corrugated. 

Eastern slopes of the Neilgherries, abundant in 
rich vegetable soil under the shade of trees, flowering 
October and November, In favourable situations it 
forms large patches attaining the height of from 3 to 4 
feet. The plant is handsome, the foliage bright deep 
shining green, edged with delicate white cilise, but 
the flowers are inconspicuous. 

2086. Cyanotis rosea (R. W.), stems procum- 
bent, rooting at the lower joints, afterwards ascending, 
succulent, floccosely woolly ; leaves sessile on short 
loose sheaths, cordato-ovate,obtuse,succulent,floccose : 
peduncles axillary, solitary or two or three from the 
same axile, longer than the leaves : spike short, im- 
bricated ; bracts falcate, woolly : calyx diaphanous, 
thickly clothed with long woolly hairs : corolla longer 
than the calyx, deep rose colour : stamens exceeding 
the corolla, sparingly bearded towards the apex, 
stigma inflated, clavate : capsule 3-celled with 2 
oblong deeply corrugated seeds in each cell. 

Bolamputty Hills near Coimbatore, flowering and 
in fruit November and December. 

The succulent habit, floccose pubescence, very 
woolly calyx, and rose-coloured flowers mark this as 

a very distinct species. 

2086. Cyanotis Lawiana (R, W.), procumbent, 

diff'use, succulent, villous: leaves sboathing, linear 
lanceolate, obtuse, succulent, villous : peduncles axil- 
lary, solitary or paired, slender, longer than the 
leaves : spikes short, few-flowered, woofiy, involucral 
leaf folded, lanceolato-acuminate, bracts falcate, 2-4 
pairs : sepals free to the base, lanceolate : filaments 
simple, bearded near the apex ; style and stigma 
simple: capsule ovate obtuse, hairy on the apex: 
cells 2-seeded. — The flowers appear to be red. 

Dharwar, on rocks, Law. 

I am indebted to Mr. Law for the specimen re- 

2086. Cyanotis fasciculata? (Roem, and Sch., 
Tradescantia fasciculata f Roth), woolly, diff'use, as- 
cending, leafy and branching from the base : leaves 
sheathing, linear lanceolate, acute : sheaths loose ; 
peduncles terminal, short : spike secnnd, few-flower- 
ed: involucral leaf ovate; bracts 3-4 pairs, falcate, 
imbricate, woolly : calyx lobes lanceolate, ciliate, fila- 
ments bearded, not tumid, style glabrous, tumid at 
the apex : capsule 3-celled, 2 seed in each. 

Malabar. I have added a mark of doubt to the 
specific name, though I almost think unnecessai'ily, 
the plant agrees so well with the description, be- 
cause Roth describes the stamens of his plant as 
glabrous while in mine they are bearded. The habit, 
which is well preserved in the drawing, quite agrees 
with the description : " stem from a finger to a span, 
obliquely ascending, weak, diffuse, filiform, leafy and 
branched from the base." The rest of the descrip- 
tion with the single exception of the filaments cor- 
responds equally well. Roth compares his plant with 
Trad, cristata, Linn., deriving his knowledge of its 
aspect, I presume, from Burmann's figure, which is 
very unlike Linnseus*, in the Flora Zeylanica, and 
proves that the two plants, though of the same genus, 
are very different species. It is I think much more 
neai'ly related to Burmann's Commel. papilionacea^ 
T. papilionacea^ Lin., if indeed it be not that plant. 
It is evidently nearly allied to my C. Lawiana^ but 
differs in having the stigma tumid, and very short 
peduncles, also in the less lax habit. 

2087. Cyanotis dichrotrtcha (Stock's MS.)? 
stem erect, simple, sparingly villous : leaves sheath- 
ing, sessile, succulent, linear lanceolate, villous : pe- 
duncles axillary, solitary, longer than the leaves : 
spikes few-flowered, woolly : calyx 3-parted to the 
base ; lobes lanceolate, very woolly : filaments tumid 
and bearded neai- the apex : stigma clavate : cap- 
sule? — Flowers red. 

Heura, Stocks. In the dried plant I have not suc- 
ceeded in making out the character suggested by the 
name, two-coloured hairs, which I imagine applies 
to those of the filaments. 

2087. Cyanotis sakmentosa (R. W.), root tuber- 
ous, stems long, succulent, pubescent, sarmentose : 
leaves radical, distichous, linear, blunt, villous : spikes 
secund, short peduncled, scapose, many-flowered: 
spathes short, ovate acute: bracts numerous (5-10 
pairs), falcate, acute, somewhat woolly ; petals con- 
nate to near the apex, limb roundish cuspidate : fila- 
ments much longer than the perianth, bearded and 
tumid near the apex : style glabrous, tumid : stigma 
sub-capitate: capsule 3-celled, seed 2 superposed. 
Flowers and stamens pale rose colour. 


C 33 ) 

Bolamputty, December — ^but very sparingly in 
flower. I have not myself seen this plant growing, 
the specimens were brought by my collector. I have 
described the leaves as all radical and the flowers 
scapose, because they spring from the joints of run- 
ners, the plant being without stems. The leaves from 
the central tuberous root are lai'ger than those on 
the runners, but otherwise quite the same and the 
peduncle springs as a short scape from the joint. 

2088. Ctanotis decumbens (R. W.), decumbent, 
very branchy, woolly all over, especially the sheaths 
of the leaves : leaves linear lanceolate, bluntish ; above 
sparingly, beneath densely woolly; sheaths short, 
loose: peduncles axillary and terminal, solitary or 
two or three aggregated, longer than the leaves: 
spike short, 4-6 pairs of imbricating falcate bracts : 
calyx 3 -parted, woolly, as long as the capsule : fila- 
ments bearded, simple : style glabrous, tumid at the 
apex, capsule furnished on the apex with a tuft of 
rigid hairs. 

Quilon, Malabar. — I begin now to entertain doubts 
whether I ought not rather to view this as a very 
luxuriant form of the preceding than as a distinct 

These six species all coincide in the peculiarity of 
having pink-coloured flowers. They are all very 
nearly allied, so nearly indeed that it seems not im- 
probable some of them will yet be reduced, but so 
far as my present materials enable me to judge, they 
seem all distinct and readily distinguishable. 

2088, Cyanotis vaginata (R. W.), erect or as- 
cending, very ramous : lower part of the stem clothed 
with the persistent sheaths of aborted or Mien leaves : 
leaves sessile, somewhat stem-clasping, ovato-lanceo- 
late, acute, clothed on both sides with long slender 
hairs : peduncles axillary and terminal, solitary or 
aggregated : spikes 10-14-flowered : calyx lobes lan- 
ceolate acute, filaments simple, bearded : stigma sub- 
capitate : capsule 3-celled ; 3-valved, valves decidu- 
ous, separating from the persistent 3-lobed placenta, 
seed two in each cell, superposed. 


This and the two following species present the un- 
usual peculiarity, met with in some Euphorbiaceae, of 
throwing oif the valves of the capsule, leaving the 
placentary axis in its place. The upper half of the 
placenta, that above the insertion of the seed, is 3- 
lobed and has a loose cellular texture, the lower half 
is firm. This feature marks these as constituting a 
distinct and peculiar group. 

2089. Cyanotis paptlionacea (Raam. and Sch.), 
stem creeping, leaves linear lanceolate ; pilose beneath, 
ciliate near the base : sheaths short, loose : peduncles 
axillary, terminal, pilose on one side, solitary or two 
or three aggregated, about the length of the leaves : 
spike 4-12-flowered: bracts 2-6 pairs, ciliate, falcate : 
filaments bearded, simple : stigma clavate ; valves 
of the capsule separating from the persistent axile 

Malabar. The Commelyna papilionacea of Bur- 

mann, the ty]>e of this species, is a very obscure plant, 
rendered still more so by the figure he has given to 
illustrate it, which seems more calculated to mislead 
than aid in recognizing his plant. In naming this 
species I have been guided rather by Kunth's de- 

scription than the figure, and as they seem to corres- 
pond, so far as the description goes, I trust I have 
given the name to the right object. 

2089. Cyanotis Burmanniana (R. AV., Com, crls' 

tata? Burm. not Linn.), creeping, diffuse, branched; 

branches filiform, pilose: leaves sheathing, sessile, 

ovato-lanceolate, obtuse, villous : peduncles axillary 
and terminal ; solitary or aggi-egated, longer than the 

leaves: spikes secund, 8-12 or more flowex'ed: bracts 
4-6 pairs, falcate, ciliate : lobes of the calyx lanceolate 
acute : filaments bearded : style simple, not tumid 
at the apex : stigma sub-capitate, placenta separat- 
ing from the valves of the capsule, persistent, lobes 

Quilon, Malabar. 

I quote wnth doubt, Bm-mann's figure, though, I 
think, I may almost do so with confidence, at least 

with as much confidence as it would be safe to quote 

any of his figures of Commelyna^ which seem all 

miserably bad. But bad as it is, I cannot reconcile 
myself to receive it as a figure of the plant, repre- 
sented in plate 1, Flora Zeylanica, and given as the 
true cristata by Linnicus himself, 


Gen. Chab. Lateral sepals connate to near the 
apex ; dilated-sack-like at the base : posterior one 
like the petals and free to the base. Lip posticous 
ovato-obtuse, quite entire, embraced and concealed 
by the larger connate sepals, calcarate : spur enclosed 
within the sack of the sepals. Column elongated, 
stigma beaked, two-cleft. Anther dorsal, two-celled : 
poUenia two-beaked ending in a long slender caudi- 
culus and oblong stigmatic gland. — A terestrial, erect, 
somewhat branched plant : leaves sheathing at the 
base, sessile, broad ovate acute, coarsely plicately- 
nerved, glabrous- Spikes terminal, compactly many- 
flowered ; each flower supported by a longish subu- 
late bract. 

This plant seems evidently to belong to Lindley's 
division Cranichid^e though differing in its prolonged 
rostrate fertile, not truncated, rostellum, but so far as 
I can discover, does not enter into any of the genera of 
that tribe on which account I have made it the type 
of a new genus, the essential distinguishing feature 
of which is the remarkable conformation of the late- 
ral sepals. These are respectively so much produced 
that by their union they are enabled to form a sack, 
at first sight resembling the spur, so common in the 
order, but which, when opened, is found to contain 
the proper spur. This of itself, seems to me, to 
constitute a very suflicient generic distinction and, 
when added to the very long column and tapering 
rostellum, so different from the truncated forms com- 
mon to this division of the tribe, the tapering filiform 
caudiculus, and the oblong stigmatic gland of the 
pollinia, leaves no doubt of this being a very distinct 

I have dedicated it to the artist whose facile 
pencil produced the drawings for the greater part of 
the plates of the last three volumes of this work, and 
whose skill in analytical delineation is, I believe, as 
yet quite unrivalled among his couutrymen, and, but 

for his imperfect knowledge of perspective, rarely 
excelled by iMiropean artists. 

Three Indian Botanists have now essayed to com- 
memorate in this way the botanical merits of deserv- 

( 34 ) 



ing natives of India, but a3 yet all unsuccessfully, this genus. In tlie accompanying one, I give figures 

of tlie male forms of E, cuspidata, and ovata^ but I 
have not yet obtained female ones of ^. lineolata. To 

The first of these, Wallich's Kurremiay seems to have 
merged into Hamilton's Bhesa, or if not, is virtually 
only known by name to science, no authoritative 
defiaition of the genus having as yet been published. 

E-oyle's Murdania is a species of Aneilema, and Mr. 

Thwaites' supposed new genus was, fortunately, as- 
certained, when passing through the press, to exist 
under another name. Whether Kurremia wiU ulti- 
mately prove a good genus is a question still subju^ 
dice. These repeated failures are certainly discourag- 
ing to further attempts, but notwithstanding I am 
encouraged to make it, on acco^ant of the great merit 
of the man, and in the conviction that I cannot be 
mistaken in considering a genus, so singular in its 
characters, quite new to science, so far at least as its 
records have yet reached me. The name, too,_ fortu- 
nately, even to Western ears, is not uneuphonious. 


Courtallura, in forests, flowering August and Sep- 
tember. A low herbaceous plant from 8 to 12 inches 
high, sparingly branched, each branch ending in a 
shortish spike ; leaves from 3 to 5 inches long and 
from 2 to 3 broad at the broadest point, 


Under No. 1984 I expressed a hope that in a sub- 
sequent plate I should be able to supply the deficien- 
cies of that and the two other plates illustrative of 

these I have added figures of other two, small species, 
to fill the plate. 




pie, leaves obovate cuuiate, unequal-sided, crenately 
serrated towards the apex; pilose on both sides, 
above mixed with scattered bristly hairs : receptacles 
sessile, unsexual ; female, fertile flowers few, sessile, 
mixed with numerous pedicelled 3-4-lobcd sterile 
ones : nuts oval, ribbed. 

Belgaum, Law and Dalzell. • 

Both these gentlemen favoured me with spcchnens 
of this plant. It seems a very distinct species and a 

true congener of the alternate-leaved division of this 


2091. Elatostoma surculosa (R. W.), erect, 
spreading on all sides by means of suckers : leaves 
sub-sessile, ovate acuminate, unequal-sided, coarsely 
serrated except near the base, lineolate, glabrous : 
male receptacle peduucled, involucrate, male flowers 
pedicelled, 4-lobed : female receptacle and flowers ses- 
sile, flowers mixed with numerous pedicelled sterile 
ones ; sterile ones simply capitate, or 3-4-lobed : nut 
oval, ribbed. 

Neilgherrles, on loose moist vegetable soil, near the 
banks of streams or rills. 




( 35 ) 


The genng Ponzolzia wag established by GauJi- 
chaud for the reception of some plants previously 
referred by Linuasus and others to Parietaria^ and by 
Roxburgh and other Indian Botanists to Urtica. 
He separated it from the former of these genera, on 
account of the species he knew having a linear not 
capitato-villous stigma, and winged, not simply ovate, 
ribbed fruit. I here use the term fruit to designate 
the nut Avith its enclosing persistent calyx or perianth. 
His words are, "F<?/«. calyx fructifer profunda sulcato- 
angulatus vel eoraplanato-bialatus, inferne ad utrum- 
que latus cristatns, gibbus vel nudus, limbo parvo 
bilobo (lobis 2 altcrnis aborticntibus?). Stigma ses- 
sile, elongatum, ad unum latus villosum " His char- 
acter ofParictaria being, "JV//?. calyx tubulosus 4- 
lobus. Stylus filiformis. Stigma capitato-villosum." 

These distinctions have not been deemed of suffi- 
cient weight by either Endlicher or Meisuer to keep 
the two genera distinct, the former having altogether 
rejected the new genus, while the latter has merely 
given its essential character, retaining it as a sub- 
geims ofParictaria. Mr. Bennett (PL Javan. rar.), 
however, takes a different view and adopts the genus. 
After stating that Gaudichaud had sub-divided the 
Linnean genus Parietaria into seven distinct groups, 
founded chiefly on modifications of the fructiferous 
calyx, he continues, "among these groups, that to 
which he has applied the name Pouzolzia is particu- 
larly Avell marked by the distinct habit of most of 
tlie species composing it, and by the geographical 
distribution, as well as by the peculiar characters of 
their fructification. These characters consist in the 
female perianth enlarging in size and changing in 
form as the fruit advances to maturity, and finally con- 
stituting, at the completion of tliat period, an undivided 
envelope, closely applied to the surface of the seed, 
and furnished with a series of projecting ribs (most 

commonly double in number to that of the parts form- 
ing the male perianth), with the frequent development 
(sometimes additional, sometimes at the expense of 
the ribs) of two broad wing-like expansions, bearing a 
strong external resemblance to the wings of the seed- 
vessel of Oxyria, The presence or absence of these 
wings in the different species appears to afford so 
obvious a character in the ripe state of the fruit, that 
I should have been tempted to carry still further the 
sub-division of the Linnean gi"Oup an4 to regard the 
Pouzolzia of M. Gaudichaud as resolvable into two 
genera, were it not that in the earlier stage, there 
exist no sufficient means of dislinction, and that even 
in the ripe state and in those species whioli ai'C most 
obviously furnished with wings, those organs appear 
occasionally to remain undeveloped in some few of 
the flowers, although the great majority continue to 
produce them. Ifc will therefore, perhaps, be more 
advisable to regard the distinction as only of sec- 
tional importance." 

From this extract we Icam that the stability of 
the genus rests even more on the well marked habit 
of most of the species and their geographical distribu- 
tion than on the peculiar characters of their fructifi- 
cation which is so inconstant as not to admit of the 
winged division being separated from the wingless ; or 

in other words that Pouzolzia^ are tropical Parictainas 

with filiform stigmas, thereby confirming the views 
of Endlicher and Meisncr. That such is really the 
case will, I think, be amply proved in the course of 
this monograph by the occurrence of species, the 
fruit of which is scarcely ribbed, others in which it 
is traversed with prominent ridges and deep fur- 
rows ; many in which both ribbed and winged seed 
occur in the same fascicles, some with three wings 
and several with four amply developed, and lastly 
we have one with cymose male inflorescence, and 
wingless seed, nearly as in Parietaria officiiiulis. 

But notwithstanding these variations, showing that 
the only character by which the Uro genera are kept 
apart is the linear stigma, I have finally deter- 
mined to adopt the genus, mainly on the ground as- 
signed by Ml'- Bennett, " well marked peculiarity of 
habit and geographical distribution," as by so doing 
I will be enabled to present a comparatively complete 
enumeration of its species, which I could not do in 
the case of the undivided genus Parietaria, and 
should other Botanists feel disposed to take a dif- 
ferent view and look upon Pouzolzia as a sub-genus, 
the following species can, as such, be easily incor- 
porated with the larger group. 

The habit, though so well marked that when once 
a few species are known, the others are for the most 
part easily recognized, presents, when closely exa- 
mined, several very distinctive features, applicable to 
the division of the species into groups, well fitted to 
facilitate their discrimination. But for these, in a ge- 
nus so extensive and upon the whole so natural, their 
determination must, in many cases, be very difficult. 

Mr, Bennett, in his account of the genus, divides 
them into two groups, first, "Fructusbialatus. Folia 
(saltern inferiora) opposita ;" and second, " Fructus 
sulcatus nee alatus. Folia plerunique omnia altcrna," 
and even seems to think that they may form the 
elements of two distinct genera. A more extended 
acquaintance with the genus, shows that they are 
scarcely sufficient for the latter purpose, both being 
liable to exceptions as shown in plates 1S79 and 80. 
I have therefore departed from that distribution and 
had recourse to the venation of the leaves, as the 
basis of my arrangement which, however, to this 
extent only, I look upon as natural. 

My first group embraces all those having simply 
three-nerved or slightly triple-nerved leaves, that is, 
each nerve runs its whole course without conspicuous 
branches : the second, those with quintuple-nerved 
leaves, that is, those in which the middle nerve or 
proper costa gives off, generally near its middle, two 
conspicuous lateral branches and the lateral ones 
several others, but all on the outer side. To the 
fi^rst of these nearly all those with opposite and ver- 
ticelled leaves appertain, to the second, all the alter- 
nate leaved ones, and a few with opposite leaves, 
are referable. There is a third form found in P. 
cymoaa^ but which I consider referal)le to the second 
group in which all the three primaiy nerves divide 
near^ the base, producing a many -nerved leaf, though 
not in the proper sense of that term. These two 
groups are respectively distinguished by other fea- 
tures, which show that they are truly natural, and 
might, perhaps with justice, be separated as distinct 
genera, but not certainly because the fruit of the 
latter are "sulcatus nee alatus" for, with the excep- 
tion of P. qjmosa^ (probably a true Parietaria), they 
neai'ly^ all either produce 4 wings or show a ten- 
dency in that direction, by being 4-angled through the 
thickening of four of the veins which may be assumed 
either to be the costae of 4 cohering sepals, or ihe 
lateral nerves of two; the last supposition seems 
the more probable as each extends considerably 
beyond the wings forming a kind of two-cleft beak, 
which is altogether wanting in the other group. 
Apart, therefore, from the 5 -cleft involucre, they are 
more justly referable to Gaudichaud's genus Thoumu- 
ria than to Pouzolzia. 5Iy owu impression is that 
the two groups are not true congeners, and might with 
propriety be respectively raised to the rank of genera. 

I am, however, adverse to this proceeding, because I 

think the already existing genera of this order are, if 

not too numerous, at all events too loosely defined to 
be maintained as they now stand, and that, therefore, 
were I to add another it might merely be adding to 
the ab'cady existing confusion, owing to my imper- 
fect acquaintance with the rest of the order, and in the 

meantime all the Indian species can be easily enough 

ranged under Mr. Bennett's character- Of the numer- 
ous real or supposed species, defined in the following 

pages, I already begin to entertain doubts of their 
all proving permanent, and suspect, that if leisure 
permitted me to go over the ground again with the 
same attention that I bestowed six months ago, I 
should probably find occasion to reduce some of them, 
having in the interval obtained additional specimens of 
some which may probably, by throwing further light 
on such as were then obscure, show that my fii'st 
determination was premature. This, however, is now 
quite impossible, I can, therefore, only express a 
hope that my fears on this account may prove gi'Ound- 
less. They principally appertain to those having 
wingless fruit and verticclled leaves, my more extend- 
ed acquaintance with plants of this genus having 
shown me that some, indeed many of those having 
winged fruit, when full gi'own, have wingless ones in 
the lower fascicles, hence the probability that some of 
those described as having wingless fruit, may be 
merely junior specimens in which perfectly developed 
ones may not yet have been produced, and in regard 
to the leaves, I have repeatedly, since this paper was 
written, found opposite and verticelled leaves on the 

same plant, lowering by so much the value of that 

character when not well supported by others more 

constant. These facts I think it necessaiy to mention, 
to put others on their guard against placing too much 
reliance on those marks of distinction, as well as to 
warn collectors to be always careful in selecting their 
specimens. For exhibiting the fructification the most 
fully developed branches either in whole or in part 
^hould be taken, that is, in case, as often happens, 
the floriferous portion has grOAvn to so gixat a length 
as to make a specimen, having both leaves and fruit 
inconveniently large, to be sure always to add to a 
smaller and younger branch a part of one fully deve- 
loped, for in full-grown specimens it is occasionally 

found that male flowers have, at the extremities, al- 
most entirely given place to female ones, all of which 
are winged while on younger branches of the same 
plant they are nearly as universally males, or if fruit 
are found they are wingless, and concealed among the 
males. A knowledge of this fact may occasionally 
save trouble, and remove uncertainty in the determin- 
ation of a species. 

The number of stamens is also sometimes variable, 
but less so than the foliage and forms of the fruit. 

In regard to the accompanying figures I fear some 
of them will not be found so useful as I at first anti- 
cipated, for owing to want of room they often fail in 
conveying a correct idea of the habit, a point on 
which native artists are apt to fail, their drawings 
being usually deficient in ease, but so far as correct 
outline can compensate for deficiency of grace, I be- 
lieve the accompanying may generally be depended 
on. The analyses are true to the specimens from 
which the subjects were taken, but as these ai*e so 
much alike throughout they may not prove so useful 
as might, a priori, have been expected. This, how- 
ever, IS a point which remains to be ascertained. 

( 36 ) 

With these brief memoranda, explanatory of the 
principles which guided me in the construction of the 
following Clavis and characters of the species, I bring 
this hurried and imperfect monograph to a close, 
together with the work of which it forms a part, not 
however without expressing the hope that the latter 
may prove the means of inducing new inquirers to 
enter this extensive field of research, by lightening 
the labour of gathering and storing the rich harvest 
that still remains to be reaped. So rich indeed is the 
Indian Flora that, did circumstances permit, I could 
here, in Coimbatore, with the materials readily within 
my reach, commence a new series, and without re- 
producing a single species already introduced, carry 
on the work, I believe, through other 2000 plates. 

PouzoLziA. (Gaud., Bennett.) 

Gen. Char. 


Flowers monoicous, rarely dioicous. 
Perianth 4-5- rarely 3-parted, stamens 4-5, 
rarely 3 : rudimentary pistil minute or wanting. Fe- 
male. Perianth tubular, contracted at the apex, per- 
sistent, enclosing the seed or nut : at maturity sul- 
cately ribbed or 2-3-4-winged, bidentate at the 
apex. Style short or none: stigma prolonged, filiform, 
glandulose ou one side. Nut ovate, crustaceous, 
fragile. Seed erect, rather sparingly albuminous. 

Embryo axile, inverse; radicle cylindilcal, remote 
from the hilum. 

Herbaceous, sufTruticose or shrubby plants : creep- 
ing, procumbent, ascending or erect. Leaves teruate- 

ly verticclled, opposite or alternate, entire or rarely 
serrated, 3-ncrved, or triple or quintriplc-nerved : 
variously pilose, very rarely glabrous. Flowers ax- 
illary, glomerate, short pedicelled. Clusters at first 
nearly all males mixed with a few sessile, ovate, rib- 
bed, wingless fruit, afterwards, towards the ends of the 
floriferous branches, the male flowers diminish in 
number and are replaced by female ones producing 
winged fruit. 

Ous. The terra Fruity as here applied, is meant to 
include the nut or achseniuni together with its enclos- 
ing perianth, as seen when it separates at maturity 
from the parent plant. 

Ous. I have said above that the lower glomerulcs 
are made up of male flowers mixed with " wingless 
fruit" not female flowers. This is strictly correct, the 
female flowers precede the males and are besides so 
small that they are nearly invisible until they have 
attained an advanced state of maturity, while a suc- 
cession of male flowers continue opening for a length 

of time and before they have all passed away the first 
seed are mature and dropping off*. 

This fact, which I have often observed, leads me to 
suspect that most, if not all Mr. Bennett's supposed 
dioicous species, are monoicous, but the specimens 
young and the sessile fruit concealed among the pedi- 
celled male flowers. It is not until long after, that the 
winged fruit, which are mainly confined to the extre- 
mities of the floriferous branches, arc fully developed. 

Clavis of the Species, 

• • • 

• •4 


J C Leaves 3-5-nerved, ... 

i quintuple- or triplici-nerved, 

2 ( Leaves all similar, upper ones sub-equal or somewhat reduced in size, 

C upper ones much reduced, often bract-like, 

J Leaves, at least the lower ones, opposite, 

Whorld in threes, 

Stems erect or ascending-, 

procumbent, diffuse, 3-4-androus, 

«• • 


• ■ • 

• • • 


• • » 


• ♦* 



... 4 


« ■ » 

• • w 

• # • 

• • 4 

• «« 

• «# 

■ »* 

^ i Flowers 4-androus, 

i 5-androus, 

- Fruit ovate, ribbed, wingless, ... 

in the upper axils w inged, 

y . Loaves sessile, broad sub-cordate at the base, tapering to a point, smooth, 
i Leaves short petioled, cordato-lanceolate acute, slightly scabrous above, 
C Leaves sub-sessile, cordate, linear lanceolate acute, glabrous above, pube- 
l scent beneath, 

Fruit winged : leaves nearly oval, shortly, and somewhat abruptly, acuminate, 

not winged. 





. C Leaves broadly oval, obtuse at the base, acuminate, pilose on both sides, 
I short petioled, oblong lanceolate, with a longish slender acumen. 

»• • 

• • • 

• •« 

• *• 

^^ C Flowers pentandrous, 

( tetrandrous, 

Fruit winged and ribbed in the same glomeniles, 
12 -; not winged, stem and under surface of the leaves tomentose: leaves 

linear lanceolate, 
C Fruit 4-winged, leaves sessile, lanceolate, villous beneath, sometimes opposite, 




- two-winged, 



( Leaves sub-pubescent or glabrous, smooth above, narrow lanceolate, acute at 

both ends, fruit ovate and broadly 2 -winged, 
. scabrous above, villous beneath j ovate lanceolate sub-cordate; fruit 

f 2 -winged. 

Leaves all similar, upx)er ones only slightly reduced in size, 
15 ^ upper ones conspicuously reduced in size, and more or less altered 

in form, 
. - C Leaves lanceolate acuminate; pilose above, villous beneath, 

^^\ ' . sub-cordate, long linear lanceolate; slightly downy on both sides. 

Leaves narrow linear lanceolate, velvety beneath, upper ones much re- 
- . . duced in size, 

^' ^ elliptico-lanceolate acute, pubescent beneath, rough above, upper 

ones cordate, 

( 37 ) 

















Bennetxiaxa, Icon, 1973 







• • • 




• « • 


, rt C Leaves opposite, 

^ ternate, sessile, very rough, flowers 4-anclrous, 

, q C Flowers j)entandrous, 

f^ tetrandrous, .•. 

20 ^ ^PP^^ leaves reduced in size, scarcely altered in form, 

I reduced in size and conspicuously altered in form, 

Stem very ramous, 4-angled, leaves sub -sessile, narrow lanceolate cordate, 

pubescent beneath, 
Sparingly branched: leaves ovato-lanceolate acute, pilose on both sides, 

coriaceous, scabrous. 
Fruit often 3-winged; leaves short oval or cordate, ovate, prickly hispid 

on the margin, 
2- winged; leai'es long linear lanceolate, glabrous, except aline of 

hairs on the margin, 
Stems very ramous, straggling or chmbing among bushes, 

^ procumbent: middle wing of the fruit often thickened or spongy, 

i Stem very ramous : leaves hispid on the margin, sessile, cordate : middle 
2 . J wing of the fruit sometimes thicker than the others, 

ramous; leaves oval short- petioled, glabrous except the margin, floral 

ones linear acute. 







« • • 

• « ■ 

• ft • 

• #« 

• « • 

• »• 

25 5 ^PP^^ leaves much reduced in size, cordate, 

( ovate or sub-cordate lanceolate, 

2^i Leaves sparingly pilose, roughish above, 

I tomentose beneath, hispid above. 

Leaves sessile, sub-cordato-truncate, oblong lanceolate, acute, glabrous; 

floral ones very small, 
ovate lanceolate, acuminate, slightly hispid : fruit orbicular, deeply 




• • • 

• • # 

«• • 

• • • 



\ hispid towards the margin, smoother on the disk, 

Fruit wingless, ... 
29^ ribbed and winged, leaves ovate lanceolate sub-falcate: stem terete, 

^ pubescent, 

( Leaves short, broad ovate, rounded at the base, acute, stem roughly tomen- 
tose : floral leaves lanceolate, 

ovate oblong lanceolate, roundish or sub-cordate at the base ; floral 

leaves narrow lanceolate, 
Leaves lanceolate acuminate, tapering at both ends, upper ones narrow 

lanceolate, fruit wingless, 

ovate lanceolate acuminate, fruit 3-winged or simply ribbed, 

Leaves opposite triplici-nerved, i e., aU the three primary nerves branched 

(some of them are somewhat 5 -nerved at the base), 

usually alternate quintuple-nerved, i, e., the middle primary nerve 

twice branched: (the lateral ones are secundly branched), ^.. 

33 C Inflorescence cymose fruit sessile, wingless, 
\ glomerulate, sessile: fruit imi>erfectly winged, 

34 I Male flowers pentandrous, ... .r. 
I tetrandrous, 

35 ( Fruit wingless, leaves alternate, 






V • tt 

• • • 

«4 « 

• •• 

• • • 

• • • 

#• V 





4-angIed more or less perfectly, 4-winged ; leaves sometimes opposite, 38 

« « • 

» a • 

• a • 





( broadly ovate at the base or sub-orbicular, ... 

Leaves elliptic, hispid above, pubescent beneath, fruit ovate slightly ribbed, 

broad ovato- lanceolate, smooth above, downy beneath, firuit someM'hat 

compressed with a thickened margin. 
Fruit imperfectly 4-winged, calyx prolonged into a short beak or apiculus, 

38 i distinctly 4 -cringed, beaked ; leaves longish petioled, broad ovate, mem- 

39 I Procumbent, diffuse: leaves opposite or sub-alternate, subsessile, 
I Erect or ascending: leaves alternate, petioled, elliptico- lanceolate or ovate. 

Leaves crowded, alternate, ovate, bluntish, pilose, small ; fruit deeply furrowed, 

40 } opposite broadly ovate sub acute, pilose; fruit prominently ribbed 

and imperfectly winged, 

^j f Fruit imperfectly 4-winged; wings truncated, 

winged, wings sub-orbicular, enlarging above, auricle-like. 

Leaves ovate or ovato-lanceolate obtuse, rounded at the base, ramous, 

subtriplici-nerved, lanceolate, acute at l>oth ends, at first nearly smooth, 

becoming scabrous, villous beneath, ,.♦ 
„ , Leaves entire on the margin, ... ,.. ... ... ... 44 

serrated, shrubby. 



#• » 

« • • 

. i Leaves 

i • opposite, at least the lower ones, 

^j r Fruit ribbed or deeply furrowed, not winged, 
i four-winged: procumbent, difluse, lea 

«• • 

«• • 















cymosa. Icon, 1979 










leaves sub-sessile, ovate, pilose small, minor, 

( 38 ; 

























^g fTruit prominently ribbed, 

( even or only sliglitly ribbed, 

(Lateral ridges thicker (perhaps sometimes enlarging into wings, 

47 (Eidges nearly all equal (10). leaves narrow linear, somewhat strap-shaped, 
'Leaves all similar, ovato- lanceolate, pilose on both sides, very branchy, 

48 ^ Lower leaves ovate lanceolate, upper ones narrow linear lanceolate sub- 

Leaves ovate acute, hairy, much broader at the base, root tuberous, 

49 < broad lanceolate, acute at both ends, petioled, several inflated vesicles 

at the base of the fruit, 

Fruit ovate, ribbed or broadly 4-winged, 

ovate, compressed, ribbed or moderately winged; leaves all opposite, 

long petioled, 

Stems decumbent, leaves nearly all opposite, ovate, obtuse, moderately 


Erect or ascending: leaves mostly alternate, much reduced in size 

towards the apex. 

Stems stoutish, leaves short petioled, fruit largely apiculate, 

slender filiform, petiols longish very slender, upper leaves scarcely 


Stems erect or ascending, raraous, leaves longish petioled, membranous, — 

long straight, lower branches opposite: leaves alternate, short petiol- 
ed, upper ones sessile small, 

50 K- 





















• 42 


N- B.— The outer row of figures refer to the number of the species in the accompanying plates. 

L— Leaves simply three-nerved: ner\'es undivided. 
§ l.f Male flowers 3-androus, fruit not winged. 

1. P.parvifolia (R. W,,fig, 1) procumbent, difi'use, 
pubescent: leaves opposite, ovate, or suborbicular ; 
flowers few, axillary, short pedicelled ; males trian- 
drous : female ovate slightly ribbed. 

Ceylon, Thwaites. This species is easily distin- 
guished by being 3-androus, which I have found 
constant in five or six flowers examined, it agrees 
however in all other respects with the character of the 
genus, and need not on that account be removed 

from it. Leaves 4-6 lines long and nearly the same 

§ 2, Male flowers 4-androus. 

2, P. hitegrifolia (Dalzell, Hooker, Kew Gard, Mis- 
cellany, Ic. 1979), leaves opposite, sessile, subcordate, 
broadest at the base, thence tapering uniformly to 
the point, sub-acuminate, united by a broad stipule, 
sparingly pilose on both sides ; roughish above : flow- 
ers axillary, subsessile : males tetrandrous or some- 
times 3-androus : fruit 2-3-winged : wings ciliate. 

Mountains, Malabar, flowering September. The 
stipules in this species are more distinct than usual, 
completely connecting the opposite leaves. 

I am indebted to Mr, Dalzell for the specimen re- 
presented, and from which this character is taken. 

3. P, actda (R. W. 2), erect, sparingly ramous ; 
leaves sessile, subcordate, lanceolate, acuminate ; sub- 
scabrous above, slightly hoary on the nerves beneath : 
stipules deciduous : flowers axillary, subsessile, 4- 
androus: fruit both winged and ribbed: winged ones 
broad cordate at the base, bicuspidate at the apex ; 
ribbed ones simply ovate, 

Courtallum, flowering July and August, 

§ 3. Flowers pentandrous. 

4, P. ovalifolia (R. W. 3), somewhat diffuse, as- 
cending, or seeking support: leaves subsessile or 
very shortly petioled, oval ; acutish at the base, sharp- 
ly acuminate; pilose on both sides, scabrous above: 
stipules ovate, deciduous: flowers 5-androus, fruit 
ovate or slightly cordate at the base, ciliate at the 

apex.— The leaves in the figure are rather more ovate 
tlian on the specimen. 

Alpine jungles. So far as my specimens show, all 
the leaves of this species arc opposite, and nearly oval 
except the short acumen. 

5. P. Mysoreiisis (R. W. 4), erect, glabrous : leaves 
short petioled, oblong lanceolate, obtuse or subcor- 
date at the base, acuminate at the apex; smooth 
above, glabrous or slightly pilose on both sides, ciliate 
on the margin: flowers pentandrous, fruit ribbed, 
not? winged. 

Narri Bolu, of the Mysorians. 

Bababooden Hills, Mysore, Bertie, flowering De- 
cember. I am uncertain in regard to the fruit, as it 
is probable that the absence of winged ones may be 
owing to want of maturity of the specimens, but as 
this rests on conjecture only, I am constrained to 
notice that character, which may in truth be a valu- 
able one. 

6. P. ambigua (R. W. 19), stems erect, round, 
smooth, sparingly branched, pubescent towards the ex- 
tremities : leaves sessile, subcordate, linear lanceolate 
acute, often slightly falcate ; glabrous, rough above, 
somewhat velvety beneath, hispid on the margins ; 
faintly 5-nerved, the outer pair almost inconspicuous; 
floral ones much reduced in size but similar : flowers 
axillary, glomerules compact ; fruit ovate, ribbed, in 
the lower glomerules, above broadly winged, deeply 
cordate at the base. 

Coiu'tallum, Malabar, flowering during the rains. 
This species so far resembles the figures of P. pen- 

tandra^ that previous to examination I considered it 

that species, and even now feel almost disposed to 
look on it as a 4-androus variety of that species, 
hence the specific name, which I have given, refers 
not to any ambiguity of the genus to which the plant 
belongs but the species, that is, I am uncertain 
whether it is a species or variety. 

7- P. Gardneriana (R. W. 5), erect, somewhat 

ramous, stem and branches terete, sub-glabrous : 
leaves short petioled or subsessile, broadly oval, ob- 
tuse at the base, acuminate, acute at the apex, pilose 
on both sides : flowers few, sessile, pentandrous ; fruit 

Ceylon. Gardner, Thwaites. Though in character 
very similar to the precedinff, this is a very distinct 

( 39 ) 

species* It is not improbable that in old specimens 
winged fruit may be found. 

4. Leaves ternately verticelled : flowers pentan- 
drous, — upper leaves conformable or simply re- 
duced in size. 

8. P. tomentosa (R. W. 11), stem and under sm'face 
of the leaves toraentose : leaves sessile, ternately ver- 
ticelled, oblong, ovate -lanceolate, rounded or sub-cor- 
date at the base, acute or sub- acuminate ; scabrous 
above : stipules reflexed : flowers numei'ous, pentan- 
drous, subsessile : fruit wingless, ribbed. 

Neilgherries, flowering August and September. I 
find no trace of wings in this species, though the spe- 
cimens seem to have attained an advanced state of 
maturity, but still I cannot feel certain on this point 
as male flowers so greatly predominate, which seems 
to indicate that they are still far from maturity* 

9. P- Jieterocarpa (R, W. 13, 14), erect, sparingly 
branched, stems terete, glabrous : leaves ternately ver- 
ticelled, triple -nerved, short petioled, narrow lanceolate, 
acuminate at both ends ; smooth, downy above, hoary 

lanceolate, acute ; pilose above, somewhat tomontosc 
beneath : flowers 4-androus, fruit winged or simply 
ovate, ribbed. 

Courtallum. This principally differs from the two 
preceding species in being tctrandrous, a distinction 
w^hich I think it probable more extended acquain- 
tance with these species will show to be of scarcely 
specific value. Among the specimens I have refer- 
red to Bennettiaiia^ perhaps erroneously, I find some 
with tetrandrous flowers, but I have not met with 
pentandrous ones on this. 

12. P. longifolia (R. W., 6), erect, stem 4-angled, 
scarcely branched : clothed with rough hairs : leaves 
ternate, subsessile, linear lanceolate, broadest, and sub- 
cordate at the base, taperingly acuminate at the 
apex ; pilose on both sides, scabrous above, the under- 
surface netted with dark coloured somewhat promi- 
nent veins : fascicles few-flowered, flowers tetran- 
drous, fruit broadly winged and deeply cordate, 

Courtallum, September. Leaves about 6 or 7 
inches long and scarcely 1 broad, membranous, the 
hairs with which their surface is thickly clothed so 

beneath : flowers numerous, sessile, pentandrous : fruit flue that until closely examined they look as if glab 

varying from slightly ribbed to broadly winged, the 
winged ones deeply cordate at the base. 

Western slopes, Neilgherries, flowering Decem- 
ber. I have two forms of this plant the one here 
described clothed with short pubescence, the other 
glabrous, but both free from roughness on the surface : 
the leaves are from 3 to 5 inches long and about % of 
an inch broad, ending in a long tapering acumen. 

This being among the first examined in which I 
found two forms of seed, I named it accordingly ; the 
discovery of so many others similarly circumstanced 
has rendered it less appropriate. 

10. P. Bennettiana (R. W., Ic. 1978), erect, spar- 
ingly branched: stem and upper surface of the leaves 
scabrous : leaves ternate, short petioled, ovate lanceo- 
late, slightly unequal-sided, obtuse or sub-cordate at 
the base, ending in a long tapering acumen ; pilose 
above, densely pubescent or sub-tomentose, especially 
on the nerves, beneath: flowers numerous, subsessile, 
5-androus: fruit in the same fascicles ovate, sim- 
ply ribbed, or broadly two or three winged ; the two 
winged ones rather deeply cordate at the base. 

Neilgherries, Ceylon ? Courtallum ? 


13. P. TT'i^Mz (Bennett, 8), erect, scarcely branch- 
ed, terete : leaves sessile, opposite or ternate ; narrow 
linear lanceolate ; tomentose beneath, downy and 
slightly rough above, the extreme ones considerably 
smaller: flowers 4-androu3 : fruit broadly winged, cili- 
ate, cordate at the base, somewhat forked at the apex. 

Pulney Mountains, September, 

This is a very distinct species from the preceding, 
but very nearly approaches temata^ in every thing 
except the gi*eat diminution in size of the floral leaves 
which, however, I esteem a good character. 

14. P, concinna (R. W,, 9), erect, terete, glabrous, 
leaves opposite and ternate, sessile, lanceolate, spread- 
ing, acuminate, the extreme ones much smaller and 
cordate, acute, all doM^ny on the nerves beneath and 
scabrous above ; flowers tetrandrous, axillary, sessile, 
few : calyx lobes lanceolate acute : fruit both ovate 
and winged. 

Courtallum. The leaves in this species are spread- 
ing, rather rigid, below exactly lanceolate, but some- 
what prolonged at the point into a fine acumen, to- 
wards the extremities of the older branches, short, 

I feel still uncertain whether to view this simply as broad ovate cordate. It is a neat pretty looking 

a variable plant or to supi)ose that I have combined 
more than one species. The form represented in the 
plate is that which I consider the true one, all except 
the winged fruit which was taken from too young a 
specimen and had not attained its perfect form. 
Among the forms I have referred here, are some with 
niuch^ narrower and more tomentose leaves, but all 
agreeing in their scabrous upper surface. The Ceylon 
and Courtallum plants diifer in the above respects 
from the Neilgherry ones. The slight inequality of 
their sides, gives the leaves a somewhat falcate ap- 
pearance which is readily observable in the speci- 
men, though scarcely shown in the figure. 

6. Leaves ternately verticelled : flowers 4-anJrous, 
* Upper leaves reduced, not bract-like. 

11. P. ternata (Bennett, 7), erect, sparingly branch- 
ed ; stem and under surface of the leaves hoary : 
leaves all alike, but smaller towards the extremity, 
subsessile, broadest and slightly cordate at the base. 

plant in the herbarium, whence the specific name 

* ♦ Upper leaves bract-like. 

15, P, a^pira (R. W., 18), erect, very ramous, the 
terminal shoot long and slender; stem and branches 
terete, very rough : leaves ternate rarely opposite, ses- 
sile, broad ovate-cordate, acute, 5-nerved at the base; 
rough on both sides but especially above ; those on 
the floriferous ramuli much reduced, often almost to 
mere scales, cordate acute : flowers 4-androus, fruit 
all ovate, ribbed, not winged. 

Anamallay Hills ; flowering in July. One of the 

most marked species of the genus ; distinguished by 
its rigid numerous harsh broadly ovate cordate leaves, 
its slender floriferous axillary ramuli, the terminal 
one sometimes from 12 to 18 inches long: fruit very 
small, numerous, ovate, and ribbed throughout. 

§ 6. Leaves opposite, upper ones much reduced in 
size or bract-Hke. 

f Flowers pentandrous. 

( 40 ) 

16. P. pentandra (Bennett, Ico. C9G, Urtica pentaw 
drrty lloxb.), stem ramous, 4-sided towards the apex : 
leaves sessile, narrow lanceolate, cordate, pilose on 
both sides, scabrous above; upper ones reduced in 
size but similar in form : flowers pentandrous : fruit 
winged, cordate. 

Calcutta, Roxburgh. Java, Bennett. 

17- P. Walkeriana (R. W., 16), erect, sparingly 

ramous : leaves short petioled, lanceolate, narrow or 
acute at the base, pilose on both sides, scarcely scab- 
rous, ciliate on the margin ; upper floral ones narrow 
lanceolate, sessile, sub-cordate : flowers pentandrous : 
fruit winged, without intermediate ribs. 

Ceylon, Col. Walker. This species is very near 
pentandra^ which indeed I at first considered it, until 

more careful examination enabled me to detect my 

18. P. Stocksii, (R. W., 28-20 ?) straggling ramous, 
seeking support and then ascending; stem and 
branches four-angled, furrowed between, glabrous : 
petiols short, connected by a broad scarious stipule : 
leaves glabrous except the hispid margin, from oval 
obtuse at both ends to cordato-ovate obtuse; floral 
ones sessile, narrow ovato-lanceolato obtuse ; flowers 
few, axillary, pentandrous, fruit ovate, ribbed or 
broadly two or sometimes tlu'ce-winged. 

Coimbatore, Anamally forests, Belgaum ? Dalzell ; 
Dcccan, Stocks. 

The three specimens, thus associated, all diff'er but 
yet possess so much in common that I see no other 
alternative for the present than that of uniting them 
until more perfect ones of the two last are obtained. 

Mr. Dalzell's specimen is a branch of a young plant 
not yet properly iu fruit, Dr. Stocks' of a loose strag- 
gling one which he found gi'owing in the bed of a river 
and probably much modified in its mode of growth by 
the locality, as its leaves are alternate! though so dis- 
tinctly appertaining to the opposite-leaved group. If 
other specimens of this last arc found constant in 
regard to the alternate leaves it will form a very dis- 
tinct species. Until that is ascertained it seems more 
closely to resemble my plant than any other I have 
seen. Mr. Dalzell describes his as being quite erect, 
but then it is only half-grown and may, when further 
advanced, show the straggling habit of mine with 
which in other respects it seems to associate. 

19. P. ramosissima (R. W. 17), erect, very ra- 
mous, branches ascending, hispid : leaves subsessile, 
ovate cordate obtuse, sparingly pubescent above, gla- 
brous beneath except the margin which is hispid; 
upper ones much reduced, sessile, vai-ying from 
broad deeply cordate to ovato-lanceolatc : flowers 
]>entandrous, fruit 2-3 -winged, prominently ribbed 
between the wings. 

Ncilghcrries. JMy specimens of this plant arc not 
very satisfoctoi-y as they seem to have been injured 
or gi'ew under unfavourable circumstances as, in 
one, the stems are erect and the branches all rcflcxcd jungle. 

acute at both ends, triple-nerved, glabrous on the disk, 
hispid on the margin : upper ones much reduced in 
size, ovate cordate, acute : flowers pentandrous, ses- 
sile: fruit broadly winged with intermediate prom- 
inent ridges. 

21. P. DalzeUn(RAV, 21), procumbent, ghibrous: 
leaves subsessile, from ovate to sub-cordato-ovato, 
acute, glabrous except a line of prickly hairs on tlje 
margin ; floral leaves small, sessile, broad cordate at 
the base, acute : flowers axillary, few, pentandrous : 
fruit ovate, broadly ribbed or winged, furnished be- 
tween with a tliick spongy protuberance. 

Canara, Dalzell. 

These three species arc all very like each other. 
The two first, ramosissima and Stocksii^ nmy even 
require to be united, the last is I think quite distiuct. 
The spongy protuberance on the back of the fruit 
between the wings, a sort of third very thick wing, 
is quite peculiar. I have attempted, though not very 
successfully, to show it in the transverse section. 

Ceylon, Thwaltes. This seems, so far as can be 
made out from a single specimen and that somewhat 
injured by insects, a very distinct species, resembling, 
however to some extent, both in habit and outline 
of the foliage, P. Walkeri^ though otherwise very 

♦ * Flowers tetrandrous. 

22. P. scabra (R. W. 29), erect, scarcely branch- 
ed, stems terete, glabrous : lower leaves short pe- 
tioled, ovate obtuse at the base, pointed ; scabrous 
above, roughly pilose beneath, iloriferous portion long 
and slender with minute bract-like sessile cordate 
leaves : fascicles few-flowcrcd : flowers tetrandrous, 
fruit Aviiiged, inconspicuously ribbed between. 

Anaraallay Mountains, July and August. A very 
marked species, approaching p. aspera in some of its 


23. P. caudata (Bennett, 27), erect, ramous; 
steins terete, glabrous: leaves sessile, sub-cordato- 
truncate at the base, lanceolate acute or acuminate, 
membranous; smooth and glabrous on both sides: 
floriferous shoots slender with minute bract-like, cor- 
date, acute, leaves : flowers tetrandrous: fruit sim- 
ply ovate, ribbed and winged in the same fascicles. 

Com'tallura and Anamally Mountains, flowering 


24. P. Wallichiana (R. W. 23), fruticose, erect, 

branches terete, pubescent : leaves short petioled, lan- 
ceolate, obtuse at the base, tapering above to a slen- 
der point, hispid on the margin, otherwise nearly 
glabrous above, velvety beneath ; floriferous ones 
narrow lanceolate, much reduced in size : floAvers 
tetrandi-ous ; fruit ovate, ribbed, wingless, 

Ncilgherries and lyamally Hills, near Coimbatore. 

This is one of the largest species I have seen, some 
plants I met with on the Nellghcrries having attain- 
ed a height of 10 or 12 feet, quite shrubby, but seek- 
iinr Hip snnnort of the surronndintr dense arboreous 

and drooping, while in another they are ccrnuous : 
the latter had been injured in its primary shobt and 
thence gave ofl* numerous laterals- The form how- 
ever of the leaves, their small size, about an inch long, 
their glabrous surfaces and hispid margins, leaves no 
doubt of this being a very distinct species. 

20. P. ^lahra (R. W. 15), stems erect, sparingly 
branched, glabrous, terete : leaves long lanceolate, 

25. P. ovaia (R.W. 24), erect, sparingly branched, 
stems pubescent or somewhat hoary: leaves short 
petioled, broad ovate, acute, rigid, very scabrous above 
somewhat hoary beneath, hispid on the margin : floral 
leaves much smaller but scarcely changed in form : 
flowers tetrandrous, sessile : fruit ovate, wingless. 

Tyamally Hills. This is nearly allied to the pre- 
ceding, but is certainly di^^tinct. In this the largest 


( 41 ) 

leaves are from IJ to 2 inches long by from 1 to IJ 
broad ; in that they are from 4 to 6 inches long, by 
about 1 or 1^ broad; in this they are very scabrous 
in that nearly smooth. In both, so far as the speci- 
mens show, the fruit are wingless. 

26. P. Neilgherreasis (R. W. 26), erect, sparingly 

ramous; stems terete, scabrous : leaves petioled, lance- 
olate, obtuse at the base, tapering to a point, acute, 
lower ones slightly falcate ; softly pubescent beneath, 
harshly scabrous above; floriferous ones alternate, 
much reduced in size and becoming broadly ovate 
cordate towards the ends of the spikes : flowers tet- 
randrous, fruit on the lower portions of the spikes 
all ovate, ribbed; towards the apex, winged and ovate, 

Neilgherries, Kotergherry pass, abundant. 

IMy specimens of this plant show well the necessity 
of selecting them well advanced, as otherwise they 
are apt to mislead, some of them presenting none but 
ovate ribbed fruit, while others, somewhat older, have 
abundance of winged ones. 

27. P. obhngifolia (R. W. 25), erect, sparingly 
ramous, scabrous : leaves oblong lanceolate, roundish 
or snb-cordat« at the base, sub-sessile; scabrous 
above, villous beneath ; floriferous ones much reduced 
in size, sessile, narrow lanceolate, acute: tetrandi'ous, 
fruit ovate, rigid, wingless, 

lyamally Hills. I for some time hesitated whe- 
ther I ought not rather to view this as a long leaved 
variety of ovata than a species, they, however, seem 
distinct. Leaves 4 to 4^ inches long by about 1^ 

28. P. trialata (R. W. 22), erect, scarcely branch- 
ed ; stem terete, hispidly pubescent : leaves ovato-lan- 
ceolate, sub-acuminate, slightly unequal sided, hispid 
towards the margin, smooth on the disk, pubescent or 
slightly hoary beneath ; floral ones smaller, but scarce- 
ly altered in form; flowers tetrandrous : fruit simply 

ovate and winged in the same fascicles, the latter 3- 

lyamally, August, nearly allied to P. Wallichiam, 

but distinguished by its S-winged fruit as well as by 



? The station is not recorded. It h 

11. Leaves quintuple or rarely raultuple-nerved, the lat- 
eral branches secundly branched. 


§ 1. Leaves opposite, multuple-nerved, shrubby, erect, 


29. P. cymosa (R. W, Ico. 1979), leaves sub-ses- 
sile, opposite, many-nerved, pubescent on both sides, 
male inflorescence cymose : cymes axillary, paired : 
flowers pentandrous, fruit sessile, one or two at the 
base of each peduncle, ribbed, not winged. 

Neilgherries, Eastern slopes, flowering August and 

This species is so unlike the rest of the group that 
I at one time thought of separating it as a distinct 
genus, a proceeding which may be deemed advisable 
when the whole order is fully revised in the event of 
its not finding a more suitable place in some of the 

already existing genera. 

30. P. micropkf/Ua (R. W. 30), procumbent, diffuse, 
ramous : leaves sessile, broadly ovate cordate, obtuse ; 
pubescent on both sides : flowers axillary, fascicled ; 
sessile, tetrandrous: fruit 4-angled, or imperfectly 4- 
winged, with prominent intermediate 1-idges ; sepals 
produced <at the apex, forming a beak. 

only artificially related to the preceding by its oppo- 
site many-nerved leaves. In all other respects it 
associates better with some of the plants of the follow- 
ing section. Leaves 6-8 lines long 3-5 broad. 

2. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, quintuple- 
nerved : fruit ovate, simply ribbed. 4-angled, or 
more or less perfectly 1-winged. 

Flowers pentandrous, 

31. P. rotundi folia (R. W. 31), erect, sparingly 
branched, stems pubescent, obscurely 4-sided ; sides 
furrowed: leaves alternate, Jong petioled, broadly 
ovate or sub-orbicular, pointed : flowers sessile, axil- 
lary, pentandrous : fruit few-ribbed. 

Courtallum, flowering August and September. 

My specimens seem to be males as there are very 
few fruit, perhaps in the female or on older branches, 
the fruit will be found to coincide with the more usual 
form in this group, that is, somewhat flattened with 
the angles prominent or even expanded into wings. 

32. P. elliptica (R. AV, 32), erect, ramous, pube- 
scent ; stems terete : leaves alteniate, elliptic, acute at 
both ends, hoary beneath, roughish above: flowers 
axillary, sessile, pentandrous ; females in the same fas- 
cicles : fruit ovate, even, or scarcely ribbed. 


33. P. bicmpidata (R. W. 33), erect, sparingly ra- 
mous ; stems terete, succulent : leaves alternate, long 
petioled, ovate lanceolate, acuminate : smooth above» 
pubescent beneath especially on the nerves : flowers 
glomerate, axillary ,sessile, pentandrous : fruit ovat«, 
sub-compressed, sometimes margined, bicuspidate at 
the apex, not ribbed. 

Courtallum, Ceylon, flowering August and Sep- 

^ The lanceolate long acuminate leaves of this spe- 
cies, with its small glomerules of flowers, bring it 

near to Paritaria Indica^ Lin., but its pentandrous 

flowers, and even, not sulcated, fruit sufficiently dis- 
tinguish it ; it also resembles the figure of Roxburgh's 
U. msicariuy from which its pentandrous flowers 
equally distinguish it. 

34. P. rostrata (R. W. 34), erect, ramous, stems 
terete, glabrous : leaves long petioled, alternate, mem- 
branous, broad ovate, acuminate, glabrons on both 
sides: flowers glomerate, sessile; pentandrous: fruit 
broadly 4-winged, beaked. 

Malabar. This is a peculiar and well-marked 
species not liable to be confounded with any other. 
Since the above was written I have received speci- 
mens from Canara, from Mr. Dalzell. 

35. P. p?'ocumhens (R. W. 35), procumbent, root- 
ing at the lower joints, ramous ; branches ascending : 
leaves opposite, short petioled, oval, obtuse at both 
ends ; pubescent beneath : flowei's glomerate, axillary, 
pentandrous: fruit somewhat compressed, 4-angled ; 
angles often thickened or produced into imperfect 
wings; apiculate or sub-rostrate. 

Ceylon, Thwaites. My specimen of this plant is 
rather imperfect. 

36. P. auriculata (R. W. 37), erect, ramous ; 
branches terete, hoary towards the extremities ; leaves 
alternate, longish petioled, lanceolate, acute at both 
ends ; roughish above, pubescent beneath ; flowers ses- 
sile, glomerate, pentandrous : fruit 4-winged ; wings 
enlarging upwards, sub-orbiculai- above, auricle-like. 

( 42 ) 

nate, near the base opposite : flowers glomerate, 
tetraudrous : fruit deeply furrowed or four- winged, 
with a large 2-cleft apiculus. 

Malabar ? The exact station is not given, but I 
think it is from Malabar. This species is readily 
distinguished by the fruit from all except the follow- 
ing, which it greatly resembles in that and some 
other respects, but is distinguished by the procum- 
bent habit and more ovate leaves, the other being 
erect, with lanceolate ones. 

48. P. tetraptera (R. W. 42), erect, or ascending, 
ramous, leaves membranous, pilose, nearly all alter- 
nate (a few of the lower pairs only opposite), longish 
petioled, elliptico -lanceolate, acute at both ends, or 
sometimes ovato-lanceolate, upper ones much smaller 
and narrower than the lower : flowers few, glome- 
rate, axillary, sessile, tetrandrous : fruit in the lower 

axils prominently ribbed, in the upper ones usually 

broadly 4-winged. 

lyamallay and Bolamputty Hills, Coimbatore, flow- 
ering August and September. 

Both these species are rather variable, but they 
seem to retain their respective habits and are no 
doubt quite distinct : though the fruit, which is pecu- 
liar, be the same iu both, 

49. P. Johnsonana (R. W. 47), decumbent, stems 
slender filiform, somewhat strigous : leaves longish 
petioled, pilose, alternate, from oval obtuse at both 
ends to ovato -lanceolate, sub-acute, floral ones reduc- 
ed, petiols slender filiform: flowers few, axillary, ses- 
sile: males tetrandrous with a conspicuous rudimen- 
tary pistil, woolly at the base : fruit ovate, compress- 
ed, fuiTOwed or broadly 4-winged and beaked. 

Cochin, Malabar, Rev. E. Johnson. This seems 
a very distinct species, spreading flat on the ground, 
rooting for some distance round the root with flori- 
fcrous extremities slightly ascending. The larger 
leaves scarcely exceed an inch in length and are 
about half as broad. 

50. P. pyramidata (R. W. 48), straggling, ascend- 
ing or erect, branches slender, 4-angled, rather deeply 
furrowed between ; lower pairs opposite : leaves al- 
ternate or the first few pairs opposite, progressively 
diminishing in size from the base to the apex, where 
they almost disappear; lower ones short petioled, 
ovato-lanceolate; upper ones sessile, linear acute, all 

hairs above and strigosely pilose beneath : stipules 
broad cordate, cuspidate : flowers few, axillary, ses- 
sile, tetrandrous : calyx fringed with long bristly 
hairs, rudimentary pistil woolly at the base : fruit 
ovate, furrowed or broadly 4-winged. 

Quilon, Malabar, These two species are very 
unlike in appearance, though so nearly agreeing in 
the characters of the flower and fruit. 

rough and sprinkled with a few longish adpressed is a species of Forskalia, 


51. P. hispida (Bennett), dioicous, pentandrous : 

stem angled, pubescent : leaves subsessile, lanceolate 
cordate, rough above, glabrous beneath, glomerules 
densely flowered. 
Nepaul, Wallich, Hamilton. 

52. P. quinquenervis (Bennett), dioicous, pentan- 
drous : stem scarcely branched, angled, smooth ; leaves 
all similar, short petioled, ovato-lanceolate sub-acumi- 
nate, 5-nerved at the base, glabrous on both sides, 
male glomerules compact. 

Nepaul, Hamilton. 

53. P. cordata (Bennett), dioicous, pentandi'ous 
stem scarcely branched, angled, smooth : leaves all 
similar, subsessile, cordate acuminate, 5-nerved at 
the base ; rough above, somewhat pilose on the veins 
beneath: male glomeriUes compact. 

Java, Horsfield. 

54. P.prostrata (Bennett), dioicous, tetrandrous, dif- 
fuse, stem-angled, somewhat haiiy : leaves all nearly 
similar petioled, broad ovate obtusish, pilose above, 

pubescent on the veins beneath, male glomerules few - 


Java, Horsfield. 

55. P. pauciflora (Bennett), monoicous, tetran- 
drous ; stem scarcely branched, angled, smoothish : 
leaves all similar, longish petioled, ovato-lanceolate, 
acute at the base, glabrous, glomerules few-flowered. 

Parietaria bracteata, Wight, in Wall, list 4600, 

referred here by Bennett. 

Povzolzia parietarioides^ Decaisne. 

Parietaria sonneratii^ Poir, seems, from the descrip- 
tion, to be a species of Elatostema. 

Parietaria Judiaca, according to Poir's description, 


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